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Evaluating Neural Network Predictors by Bootstrapping


  • Weigend, Andreas S.
  • Lebaron, Blake


We present a new method, inspired by the bootstrap, whose goal it is to determine the quality and reliability of a neural network predictor. Our method leads to more robust forecasting along with a large amount of statistical information on forecast performance that we exploit. We exhibit the method in the context of multi-variate time series prediction on financial data from the New York Stock Exchange. It turns out that the variation due to different resamplings (i.e., splits between training, cross-validation, and test sets) is significantly larger than the variation due to different network conditions (such as architecture and initial weights). Furthermore, this method allows us to forecast a probability distribution, as opposed to the traditional case of just a single value at each time step. We demonstrate this on a strictly held-out test set that includes the 1987 stock market crash. We also compare the performance of the class of neural networks to identically bootstrapped linear models.
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Suggested Citation

  • Weigend, Andreas S. & Lebaron, Blake, 1994. "Evaluating Neural Network Predictors by Bootstrapping," SFB 373 Discussion Papers 1994,35, Humboldt University of Berlin, Interdisciplinary Research Project 373: Quantification and Simulation of Economic Processes.
  • Handle: RePEc:zbw:sfb373:199435

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Bollerslev, Tim & Chou, Ray Y. & Kroner, Kenneth F., 1992. "ARCH modeling in finance : A review of the theory and empirical evidence," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 52(1-2), pages 5-59.
    2. Gallant, A Ronald & Rossi, Peter E & Tauchen, George, 1993. "Nonlinear Dynamic Structures," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 61(4), pages 871-907, July.
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    Cited by:

    1. Estanislao Arana & Pedro Delicado & Luis Martí, 1999. "Validation procedures in radiological diagnostic models. Neural network and logistic regression," Economics Working Papers 414, Department of Economics and Business, Universitat Pompeu Fabra.
    2. D. Guegan & L. Mercier, 2005. "Prediction in chaotic time series: methods and comparisons with an application to financial intra-day data," The European Journal of Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 11(2), pages 137-150.

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