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An Overview of Strategy Development Models and the Ward-Rivani Model


  • David Ward

    (European School of Economics)

  • Elena Rivani

    (European School of Economics)


Numerous models for developing strategy, defining and aligning competitive advantage have been proposed over the years (and even centuries if we consider Arian, Sun Tzu etc.) including probably the most famous of all, the 5 forces model by Porter (P5F). With publications in the field of strategy now in the thousands it is difficult to get an overall picture of how to classify and appreciate strategy tools and models. Mintzberg et al. have developed schools of thought to help alleviate and categorise this problem but this approach lacks a comparison of the models found in industry e.g. BCG, 7S McKinsey, ANSOFF etc. Consequently at academic level (but not only) we see models like P5F, etc. predominate while tools like SWOT, PEST, ARC etc. populate the consultancy arena and operative levels of the organisation. The purpose of this paper is therefore to provide an overview and comparison of selected models used in the development of business strategy along side a brief discussion of schools of strategic thought. Judging by the bibliography searched and, perhaps, the major appeal of this paper, is that a selection of common strategy development models and tools are compared systematically for the first time in one single paper. In fact it was found that models, at least in Italy, are rarely compared and if they are, it is on a one-to-one basis. The intent is to at least start to bridge and compare models and show how new models can be realised. The paper closes with the proposal of a new model, the Ward-Rivani model, which does not claim to be the most universal rather a complementary and perhaps useful platform for future work on strategy.

Suggested Citation

  • David Ward & Elena Rivani, 2005. "An Overview of Strategy Development Models and the Ward-Rivani Model," General Economics and Teaching 0506002, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 07 Jun 2005.
  • Handle: RePEc:wpa:wuwpgt:0506002
    Note: Type of Document - doc; pages: 24. This is a working paper and we would be very grateful to read your comments about this work.

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    Cited by:

    1. David WARD & Marta LASEN, 2009. "An Overview Of Needs Theories Behind Consumerism," Journal of Applied Economic Sciences, Spiru Haret University, Faculty of Financial Management and Accounting Craiova, vol. 4(1(7)_ Spr).
    2. Enida Pulaj (Brakaj) & Vasilika Kume, 2013. "How The Albanian External Environment Affect The Construction Industry," Annales Universitatis Apulensis Series Oeconomica, Faculty of Sciences, "1 Decembrie 1918" University, Alba Iulia, vol. 1(15), pages 1-24.
    3. David WARD, 2009. "Needs Seeded Strategies," Journal of Applied Economic Sciences, Spiru Haret University, Faculty of Financial Management and Accounting Craiova, vol. 4(3(9)_Fall).
    4. Siyuan Wang & Theo Notteboom, 2014. "The Adoption of Liquefied Natural Gas as a Ship Fuel: A Systematic Review of Perspectives and Challenges," Transport Reviews, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 34(6), pages 749-774, November.

    More about this item


    Strategy; Models; Porter; Ward-Rivani model;

    JEL classification:

    • A - General Economics and Teaching


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