Are Foreign Banks Bad for Development Even If They Are Efficient? Evidence from the Indian Banking Industry
Most papers on banking focus on profitability and cost efficiency as measures of performance. In doing so, these papers ignore the fact that, unlike in the manufacturing and services sector industries, the long term viability of a bank depends more on its ability to assess credit worthiness of potential borrowers and provide credit, than on static measures of financial performance. At the same time, the political economy of economic growth and economic reforms cannot overlook the impact of ownership and reforms on credit infusion, which is a major determinant of economic growth. Specifically, there is widespread belief that while foreign banks are perhaps more efficient and profitable than domestic banks in emerging markets, these banks are content to ‘cherry pick’ and limit disbursal of loans. Using bank-level data from India, for six years (1995-96 to 2000-01), we show that given a favourable atmosphere involving economic reforms and banking sector liberalisation, as well as time needed to overcome the informational disadvantages vis a vis the domestic banks, foreign banks are willing to be aggressive in credit markets of emerging economies. The policy implication of our paper is that it provides a strong rationale for policy initiatives that encourages entry of foreign banks into emerging markets and the expansion of their activities in these economies.
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- Clarke, George & Cull, Robert & Martinez Peria, Maria Soledad & Sanchez, Susana M, 2005.
"Bank Lending to Small Businesses in Latin America: Does Bank Origin Matter?,"
Journal of Money, Credit and Banking,
Blackwell Publishing, vol. 37(1), pages 83-118, February.
- Clarke, George R. G. & Cull, Robert & Martinez Peria, Maria Soledad & Sanchez, Susana M., 2002. "Bank lending to small businesses in Latin America : does Bank origin matter?," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2760, The World Bank.
- Clarke, George R. G. & Cull, Robert & Martinez Peria, Maria Soledad, 2001. "Does foreign bank penetration reduce access to credit in developing countries"evidence from asking borrowers," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2716, The World Bank.
- Clarke, George R. G. & Cull, Robert & D'Amato, Laura & Molinari, Andrea, 1999. "The effect of foreign entry on Argentina's domestic banking sector," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2158, The World Bank.
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