IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this paper

The social impact of social funds in Jamaica - a mixed-methods analysis of participation, targeting, and collective action in community-driven development


  • Rao, Vijayendra
  • Ibanez, Ana Maria


The authors develop an evaluation method that combines qualitative evidence with quantitative survey data analyzed with propensity score methods on matched samples to study the impact of a participatory community-driven social fund on preference targeting, collective action, and community decision-making. The data come from a case study of five pairs of communities in Jamaica where one community in the pair has received funds from the Jamaica social investment fund (JSIF) while the other has not-but has been picked to match the funded community in its social and economic characteristics. The qualitative data reveal that the social fund process is elite-driven and decision-making tends to be dominated by a small group of motivated individuals. But by the end of the project there was broad-based satisfaction with the outcome. The quantitative data from 500 households mirror these findings by showing that ex-ante the social fund does not address the expressed needs of the majority of individuals in the majority of communities. By the end of the construction process, however, 80 percent of the community expressed satisfaction with the outcome. An analysis of the determinants of participation shows that better educated and better networked individuals dominate the process. Propensity score analysis reveals that the JSIF has had a causal impact on improvements in trust and the capacity for collective action, but these gains are greater for elites within the community. Both JSIF and non-JSIF communities are more likely now to make decisions that affect their lives which indicates a broad-based effort to promote participatory development in the country, but JSIF communities do not show higher levels of community-driven decisions than non-JSIF communities. The authors shed light on the complex ways in which community-driven development works inside communities-a process that is deeply imbedded within Jamaica's socio-cultural and political context.

Suggested Citation

  • Rao, Vijayendra & Ibanez, Ana Maria, 2003. "The social impact of social funds in Jamaica - a mixed-methods analysis of participation, targeting, and collective action in community-driven development," Policy Research Working Paper Series 2970, The World Bank.
  • Handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:2970

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Bouillon, César P. & Tejerina, Luis, 2011. "Do We Know What Works?: A Systematic Review of Impact Evaluations of Social Programs in Latin America and the Caribbean," IDB Publications (Working Papers) 2801, Inter-American Development Bank.
    2. Ghazala Mansuri, 2004. "Community-Based and -Driven Development: A Critical Review," World Bank Research Observer, World Bank Group, vol. 19(1), pages 1-39.
    3. J.F. McCARTHY & D.J. Steenbergen & C. Warren & G. Acciaioli & G. Baker & A. Lucas & V. Rambe, 2017. "Community Driven Development and Structural Disadvantage: Interrogating the Social Turn in Development Programming in Indonesia," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 53(12), pages 1988-2004, December.
    4. Ban, Radu & Rao, Vijayendra, 2009. "Is deliberation equitable ? evidence from transcripts of village meetings in south India," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4928, The World Bank.
    5. Luis Marcano, 2005. "Atacando Pobreza: Evaluación del Programa Fondo de Inversión Social de Panamá," OVE Working Papers 0205, Inter-American Development Bank, Office of Evaluation and Oversight (OVE).
    6. Rivayani Darmawan & Stephan Klasen, 2013. "Elite Capture in Urban Development: Evidence from Indonesia," Courant Research Centre: Poverty, Equity and Growth - Discussion Papers 145, Courant Research Centre PEG.
    7. Bernard, Tanguy & Gabre-Madhin, Eleni Z. & Taffesse, Alemayehu Seyoum, 2007. "Smallholders' commercialization through cooperatives: A diagnostic for Ethiopia," IFPRI discussion papers 722, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    8. Bernard, Tanguy & Gabre-Madhin, Eleni Z. & Taffesse, Alemayehu Seyoum, 2008. "Heterogeneous Impacts Of Cooperatives On Smallholders’ Commercialization Behavior: Evidence From Ethiopia," 2007 Second International Conference, August 20-22, 2007, Accra, Ghana 52161, African Association of Agricultural Economists (AAAE).
    9. Gauri Khanna, 2008. "The Impact on Child Health from Access to Water and Sanitation and Other Socioeconomic Factors," IHEID Working Papers 02-2008, Economics Section, The Graduate Institute of International Studies, revised Jan 2008.
    10. Michael Bamberger, 2015. "Innovations in the use of mixed methods in real-world evaluation," Journal of Development Effectiveness, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 7(3), pages 317-326, September.
    11. César P. Bouillon & Luis Tejerina, 2006. "Do We Know What Works?: A Systematic Review of Impact Evaluations of Social Programs in Latin America and the Caribbean," IDB Publications (Working Papers) 80443, Inter-American Development Bank.
    12. Ravallion, Martin, 2008. "Evaluating Anti-Poverty Programs," Handbook of Development Economics, in: T. Paul Schultz & John A. Strauss (ed.),Handbook of Development Economics, edition 1, volume 4, chapter 59, pages 3787-3846, Elsevier.
    13. Platteau, Jean-Philippe & Gaspart, Frederic, 2003. "The Risk of Resource Misappropriation in Community-Driven Development," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 31(10), pages 1687-1703, October.
    14. Silva, Samantha de & Sum, June-wei, 2008. "Social funds as an instrument of social protection : an analysis of lending trends - FY2000-2007," Social Protection Discussion Papers and Notes 45179, The World Bank.


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:wbk:wbrwps:2970. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Roula I. Yazigi). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    We have no references for this item. You can help adding them by using this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.