IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Returning Home after Civil: WarFood security and nutrition among Burundian households


  • Philip Verwimp
  • Juan Carlos Munoz Mora


This paper investigates the food security and nutritional status of formerly displaced households (HHs). Using the 2006 Core Welfare Indicator Survey for Burundi we compare their food intake and their level of expenses with that of their non-displaced neighbours. We test whether it is the duration of displacement that matters for current food security and nutritional status or the time lapsed since returning home. We use log-linear as well as propensity score matching and an instrumental variable-approach to control for self-selection bias. We find that the individuals and HHs who returned home just before the time of the survey are worse off compared to those who returned several years earlier. On average, the formerly displaced have 5 per cent lower food expenses and 6 per cent lower calorie intake. Moreover, we find evidence in favour of duration of displacement as the main mechanisms through which displacement affects HH welfare. Results are robust after controlling for self-selection bias. Despite international, government and NGO assistance, the welfare of recent returnees is lagging seriously behind in comparison with the local non-displaced populations.

Suggested Citation

  • Philip Verwimp & Juan Carlos Munoz Mora, 2017. "Returning Home after Civil: WarFood security and nutrition among Burundian households," ULB Institutional Repository 2013/265940, ULB -- Universite Libre de Bruxelles.
  • Handle: RePEc:ulb:ulbeco:2013/265940
    Note: SCOPUS: ar.j

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    File Function: Page de couverture
    Download Restriction: no

    Other versions of this item:


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Loaiza Quintero, Osmar Leandro & Muñetón Santa, Guberney & Vanegas, Juan Gabriel, 2018. "Forced displacement and Multidimensional Poverty in Antioquia, Colombia: an assessment by means of a Seemingly Unrelated Regression," INVESTIGACIONES REGIONALES - Journal of REGIONAL RESEARCH, Asociación Española de Ciencia Regional, issue 41, pages 167-190.
    2. Kimsanova, Barchynai & Sanaev, Golib & Herzfeld, Thomas, 2024. "Dynamics of food demand during political instability: Evidence from Kyrgyzstan," EconStor Open Access Articles and Book Chapters, ZBW - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, vol. 55(1), pages 41-53.
    3. Iva Trako, 2018. "Returning Home After Conflict Displacement: Labor Supply and Schooling Outcomes Among Kosovar Households," PSE Working Papers halshs-01828477, HAL.
    4. Noumedem Temgoua,Claudia & Sharma,Dhiraj & Wai-Poi,Matthew Grant, 2020. "Multidimensional Poverty Assessment of Internally Displaced Persons in Iraq," Policy Research Working Paper Series 9203, The World Bank.
    5. Isabel Ruiz & Carlos Vargas-Silva, 2022. "The legacies of armed conflict: insights from stayees and returning forced migrants," WIDER Working Paper Series wp-2022-17, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    6. Joshua Sikhu Okonya & Walter Ocimati & Anastase Nduwayezu & Déo Kantungeko & Nicolas Niko & Guy Blomme & James Peter Legg & Jürgen Kroschel, 2019. "Farmer Reported Pest and Disease Impacts on Root, Tuber, and Banana Crops and Livelihoods in Rwanda and Burundi," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 11(6), pages 1-20, March.
    7. Justin George & Adesoji Adelaja & Dave Weatherspoon, 2020. "Armed Conflicts and Food Insecurity: Evidence from Boko Haram's Attacks," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, John Wiley & Sons, vol. 102(1), pages 114-131, January.
    8. Opeyemi Olanrewaju & Bedru B. Balana, 2023. "Conflict-Induced Shocks and Household Food Security in Nigeria," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 15(6), pages 1-15, March.

    More about this item


    development; migration; Burundi;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • O15 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Economic Development: Human Resources; Human Development; Income Distribution; Migration
    • O18 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Urban, Rural, Regional, and Transportation Analysis; Housing; Infrastructure

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ulb:ulbeco:2013/265940. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    We have no bibliographic references for this item. You can help adding them by using this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Benoit Pauwels (email available below). General contact details of provider: .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service. RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.