IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Islamic Financial Institutions and Participatory Finance Constraints: The Case of Pakistan


  • Ali, Azam

    (State Bank of Pakistan)

  • Kishwar, Tanveer

    (Jinnah University for Women, Karachi, Pakistan)

  • Zulkhibri, Muhamed

    (The Islamic Research and Teaching Institute (IRTI))


Islamic financial contracts are designed to facilitate financing according to Islamic norms. Islamic financing in its first stages used only the partnership modes of Musharakah and Mudarabah. Later it is realized that, to avoid moral hazards, yet compete successfully with conventional banks, it is necessary to use all permissible Islamic modes and consequently, trade and leasing techniques were developed. This paper aims to identify the constraints faced by Islamic financial institutions in the adoption of participatory finance i.e., Musharakah and Mudarabah financing. The two basic categories of financing are: 1) profit-and-loss-sharing (PLS), also called participatory finance, i.e. Musharakah and Mudarabah and 2) purchase and hire of goods or assets and services on a fixed-return basis, i.e., Murabahah, Istisna', Salam and Ijarah also called non-participatory finance. This paper suggests that innovation and creativity is necessitated more than ever to promote participatory modes of financing and to make it the preferred choice for meeting the increasingly sophisticated and diversified financial needs.

Suggested Citation

  • Ali, Azam & Kishwar, Tanveer & Zulkhibri, Muhamed, 2018. "Islamic Financial Institutions and Participatory Finance Constraints: The Case of Pakistan," Policy Papers 2018-2, The Islamic Research and Teaching Institute (IRTI).
  • Handle: RePEc:ris:irtipp:2018_002

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    File Function: Full text
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Munawar Iqbal & David T. Llewellyn (ed.), 2002. "Islamic Banking and Finance," Books, Edward Elgar Publishing, number 2499.
    2. Khan, Tariqullah, 1995. "Demand For And Supply Of Mark-Up And Pls Funds In Islamic Banking: Some Alternative Explanations," Islamic Economic Studies, The Islamic Research and Training Institute (IRTI), vol. 3, pages 1-46.
    3. Aggarwal, Rajesh K & Yousef, Tarik, 2000. "Islamic Banks and Investment Financing," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 32(1), pages 93-120, February.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Al-Jarhi, Mabid, 2004. "Islamic Finance: An Equitable and Efficient Option," MPRA Paper 55765, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    2. Veelaiporn Promwichit & Shamsher Mohamad & Taufiq Hassan, 2014. "PLS Based Financing for SMEs: Returns to IFIs," Acta Universitatis Danubius. OEconomica, Danubius University of Galati, issue 10(2), pages 61-75, April.
    3. Martha A. Starr & Rasim Yilmaz, 2007. "Bank Runs in Emerging‐Market Economies: Evidence from Turkey's Special Finance Houses," Southern Economic Journal, John Wiley & Sons, vol. 73(4), pages 1112-1132, April.
    4. Muhammad Nouman & Karim Ullah, 2014. "Constraints in the Application of Partnerships in Islamic Banks: The Present Contributions and Future Directions," Business & Economic Review, Institute of Management Sciences, Peshawar, Pakistan, vol. 6(2), pages 47-62, October.
    5. Seif. I. Tag El-Din, 2008. "Income Ratio, Risk-Sharing,and the Optimality of Mudarabah نسبة الدخل، والاشتراك في الخطر وأمثلية المضاربة," Journal of King Abdulaziz University: Islamic Economics, King Abdulaziz University, Islamic Economics Institute., vol. 21(2), pages 37-59, July.
    6. Meslier, Céline & Risfandy, Tastaftiyan & Tarazi, Amine, 2020. "Islamic banks’ equity financing, Shariah supervisory board, and banking environments," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 62(C).
    7. Ngalim, Siti Manisah & Ismail, Abdul Ghafar, 2015. "An Islamic Vision Development Based Indicators in Analysing the Islamic Banks Performance: Evidence from Malaysia, Indonesia and selected GCC Countries," Working Papers 1436-2, The Islamic Research and Teaching Institute (IRTI).
    8. Tastaftiyan Risfandy & Wahyu Trinarningsih & Harmadi Harmadi & Irwan Trinugroho, 2019. "Islamic Banks’ Market Power, State-Owned Banks, And Ramadan: Evidence From Indonesia," The Singapore Economic Review (SER), World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., vol. 64(02), pages 423-440, March.
    9. Fan, Yaoyao & John, Kose & Liu, Frank Hong & Tamanni, Luqyan, 2019. "Security design, incentives, and Islamic microfinance: Cross country evidence," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 62(C), pages 264-280.
    10. Muhammad Nouman & Karim Ullah & Saleem Gul, 2018. "Why Islamic Banks Tend to Avoid Participatory Financing? A Demand, Regulation, and Uncertainty Framework," Business & Economic Review, Institute of Management Sciences, Peshawar, Pakistan, vol. 10(1), pages 1-32, March.
    11. Javed Ahmed Khan & Shariq Nisar, 2004. "Collateral (Al-Rahn) as Practiced by Muslim Funds of North India الرهن كما تتعامل به الصناديق الإسلامية في شمال الهند," Journal of King Abdulaziz University: Islamic Economics, King Abdulaziz University, Islamic Economics Institute., vol. 17(1), pages 17-34, January.
    12. Abdul-Rahman, Aisyah & Abdul Latif, Radziah & Muda, Ruhaini & Abdullah, Muhammad Azmi, 2014. "Failure and potential of profit-loss sharing contracts: A perspective of New Institutional, Economic (NIE) Theory," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 28(C), pages 136-151.
    13. Amine Ben Amar & Ikrame Ben Slimane & Makram Bellalah, 2017. "Are Non-Conventional Banks More Resilient than Conventional Ones to Financial Crisis?," Working Papers hal-01455752, HAL.
    14. Beck, Thorsten & Demirgüç-Kunt, Asli & Merrouche, Ouarda, 2013. "Islamic vs. conventional banking: Business model, efficiency and stability," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(2), pages 433-447.
    15. Bashir, Abdel-Hameed M., 2003. "Determinants Of Profitability In Islamic Banks: Some Evidence From The Middle East," Islamic Economic Studies, The Islamic Research and Training Institute (IRTI), vol. 11, pages 32-57.
    16. Sing Tien Foo & Loh Kok Weng, 2014. "Predictability of Shariah-Compliant Stock and Real Estate Investments," International Real Estate Review, Global Social Science Institute, vol. 17(1), pages 23-46.
    17. Onour, Ibrahim & Abdalla, Abdelgadir, 2010. "Scale and Technical Efficiency of Islamic Banks in Sudan: Data Envelopment Analysis," MPRA Paper 29885, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    18. Abdelbari El Khamlichi & Thi Hong Van Hoang & Wing‐keung Wong, 2016. "Is Gold Different for Islamic and Conventional Portfolios? A Sectorial Analysis," Post-Print hal-02965765, HAL.
    19. Yomna Daoud & Aida Kammoun, 2020. "Financial Stability and Bank Capital: The Case of Islamic Banks," International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues, Econjournals, vol. 10(5), pages 361-369.
    20. Hasan, Zubair, 2012. "Incentive-compatible sukukmusharkah for private sector funding: Comment," MPRA Paper 41916, University Library of Munich, Germany.

    More about this item


    Participatory Finance; Impact Analysis; Islamic Banks; Pakistan;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • A13 - General Economics and Teaching - - General Economics - - - Relation of Economics to Social Values
    • B41 - Schools of Economic Thought and Methodology - - Economic Methodology - - - Economic Methodology
    • E50 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - General

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ris:irtipp:2018_002. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Research Division (email available below). General contact details of provider: .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service. RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.