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District Governance and Student Learning in Indonesia


  • Pradhan, Menno

    (VU University Amsterdam)

  • de Ree, Joppe

    (World Bank consultant)


We document the likely importance of district governance and teacher management policies in relation to student learning in Indonesian primary schools. As the responsibility to deliver primary education has been decentralized to district governments, we expect district specific variations in teacher management policies. Consequently, we also expect variations in learning trajectories across districts. We document substantial heterogeneity in learning gains across districts. Furthermore, we show that schools with more active teacher working groups and higher-qualified teachers achieve better learning gains. However, teacher management policy variables, including school budgets, participation rates in teacher working groups, or student–teacher ratios, can explain only a fraction of the differences in learning across districts. It is likely that the “quality” of operation matters. More detailed measurement is needed to further understanding of the heterogeneity in performance.

Suggested Citation

  • Pradhan, Menno & de Ree, Joppe, 2014. "District Governance and Student Learning in Indonesia," ADB Economics Working Paper Series 397, Asian Development Bank, revised 24 Oct 2014.
  • Handle: RePEc:ris:adbewp:0397

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Daniel Suryadarma, 2012. "How corruption diminishes the effectiveness of public spending on education in Indonesia," Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 48(1), pages 85-100, April.
    2. Wenefrida Widyanti & Asep Suryahadi, 2008. "The State of Local Governance and Public Services in the Decentralized Indonesia in 2006 : Findings from the Governance and Decentralization Survey 2 (GDS2)," Governance Working Papers 22553, East Asian Bureau of Economic Research.
    3. Rajkumar, Andrew Sunil & Swaroop, Vinaya, 2008. "Public spending and outcomes: Does governance matter?," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 86(1), pages 96-111, April.
    4. Mark Turner & Amir Imbaruddin & Wahyu Sutiyono, 2009. "Human resource management: the forgotten dimension of decentralisation in Indonesia," Bulletin of Indonesian Economic Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 45(2), pages 231-249.
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    More about this item


    education; school governance; student learning;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • I21 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Analysis of Education

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