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Education Outcomes in the Philippines


  • S. Maligalig, Dalisay

    (Asian Development Bank)

  • B. Caoli-Rodriguez, Rhona

    (Asian Development Bank)

  • Martinez, Jr., Arturo

    (Asian Development Bank)

  • Cuevas, Sining

    (Asian Development Bank)


This paper identifies key determinants of individual, school, and quality of education outcomes and examines related policies, strategies, and project intervention to recommend reforms or possible reorientation. Two sets of data were used: (i) data on school resources and outputs from the administrative reporting systems of the Department of Education; and (ii) the 2002, 2004, and 2007 Annual Poverty Indicator Surveys. Analysis of individual, school, and quality of education outcomes showed that although school resources such as pupil–teacher ratio is a key determinant for both individual and school outcomes, and that per capita miscellaneous operating and other expenses are significant factors in determining quality of education outcome, socioeconomic characteristics are stronger determinants. Children of families in the lower-income deciles and with less educated household heads are vulnerable and less likely to attend school. Girls have better odds of attending school than boys. Working children, especially males, are less likely to attend secondary school. On the basis of these results, recommendations in the areas of policy and programs are discussed to help address further deterioration, reverse the declining trend, and/or sustain gains so far in improving basic education system performance outcomes.

Suggested Citation

  • S. Maligalig, Dalisay & B. Caoli-Rodriguez, Rhona & Martinez, Jr., Arturo & Cuevas, Sining, 2010. "Education Outcomes in the Philippines," ADB Economics Working Paper Series 199, Asian Development Bank.
  • Handle: RePEc:ris:adbewp:0199

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. de Mel, Suresh & McKenzie, David J. & Woodruff, Christopher, 2009. "Measuring microenterprise profits: Must we ask how the sausage is made?," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 88(1), pages 19-31, January.
    2. Liedholm, Carl & Mead, Donald C., 1987. "Small Scale Industries in Developing Countries: Empirical Evidence and Policy Implications," Food Security International Development Papers 54062, Michigan State University, Department of Agricultural, Food, and Resource Economics.
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    Cited by:

    1. repec:wbk:wbpubs:28381 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. Albert, Jose Ramon G. & David, Clarissa C., 2012. "Primary Education: Barriers to Entry and Bottlenecks to Completion," Discussion Papers DP 2012-07, Philippine Institute for Development Studies.
    3. Francisco, Kris A., 2017. "The Impacts of Roll-On/Roll-Off Transport System in the Philippines," Discussion Papers DP 2017-22, Philippine Institute for Development Studies.
    4. Albert, Jose Ramon G. & Ramos, Andre Philippe, 2010. "Trends in Household Vulnerability," Discussion Papers DP 2010-01, Philippine Institute for Development Studies.
    5. Jose Ramon G. Albert & Andre Philippe Ramos, 2010. "Trends in Household Vulnerability," Development Economics Working Papers 22805, East Asian Bureau of Economic Research.
    6. Albert, Jose Ramon G. & Ramos, Andre Philippe & Quimba, Francis Mark A. & Almeda, Jocelyn P., 2012. "Profile of Out-of-School Children in the Philippines," Discussion Papers DP 2012-01, Philippine Institute for Development Studies.


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