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Changing Role of Women: A Study of Small Manufacturing Enterprises in India


  • Mukherjee, Dipa


Women's position in the labour market is quite vulnerable and they face widespread discrimination, especially in the informal sector. This position is changing, both quantitatively and qualitatively, and there is a marked trend towards feminisation of workforce. This paper focuses on this changing position of women in the informal manufacturing sector in India over the 1989-2000 period. The share of women in total employment is declining in the sectors traditionally labeled for women and increasing in the non-traditional sectors. Distribution of women employment is becoming more evenly spread across both activity groups and regions. Widespread casualisation emerges to be a prominent phenomenon. Poverty, literacy and per capita income are identified as important determinants of incidence of women employment. In recent years women's participation seems to be less distress driven. Regulations regarding minimum wage, mass literacy campaign along with vocational and on the job training are some of the policy suggestions.

Suggested Citation

  • Mukherjee, Dipa, 2005. "Changing Role of Women: A Study of Small Manufacturing Enterprises in India," MPRA Paper 4873, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 2006.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:4873

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Mukherjee, Dipa, 2003. "The Changing World of Work and No-Work," MPRA Paper 4865, University Library of Munich, Germany.
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    More about this item


    Employment; India; Informal Sector; Regional Pattern; Unorganised Manufacturing; Women;

    JEL classification:

    • R23 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Household Analysis - - - Regional Migration; Regional Labor Markets; Population
    • J21 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - Labor Force and Employment, Size, and Structure
    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination
    • R10 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - General Regional Economics - - - General
    • L60 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Manufacturing - - - General


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