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Gender Issues in Agriculture


  • Singh, K.M.
  • Meena, M.S.
  • Kumar, Abhay
  • Singh, R.K.P.


Agriculture occupies a key position in the Indian economy providing a source of livelihood for a majority of the population. Successes in agricultural front with high production levels, especially in food grains have indeed been achieved. But more energy in the form of mineral fertilizers, chemical pesticides and farm machinery are required every year to produce the same quantity of farm products. Historically, women have been the managers of natural resources as they are dependent on them for their livelihood and their family’s needs. The consequences of over exploitation of these resources have rendered them scarce. The rural women collect over 28% of all energy consumed in India in the form of firewood. Most of the 140 million tonnes of firewood burnt annually come from forests. Poverty and unemployment in rural areas have resulted in large-scale migration to urban areas. Women are being forced to take up more drudgerous jobs as a source of livelihood as most of the migrants are absorbed into the construction sector. Women form the largest work force in agricultural sector. Caring for livestock comes naturally to women. The most drudgerous jobs in livestock production like cleaning of the cattle sheds, feeding the cattle, collection of fodder etc. always fall on the woman. Care for young animals and backyard livestock is also largely done by women. In caring for sick young animals women have evolved several ethno veterinary practices. Despite recent agricultural innovations there is no respite for rural women. While agricultural innovations leads to the reallocation of family labour and the assignment to men of complete control over output and income, without associated changes in the allocation of obligations, welfare and nutritional status of the family may actually decline

Suggested Citation

  • Singh, K.M. & Meena, M.S. & Kumar, Abhay & Singh, R.K.P., 2013. "Gender Issues in Agriculture," MPRA Paper 45401, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 17 Jan 2013.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:45401

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    Cited by:

    1. Wenjia Jin & Kaushlendra Singh & John Zondlo, 2013. "Pyrolysis Kinetics of Physical Components of Wood and Wood-Polymers Using Isoconversion Method," Agriculture, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 3(1), pages 1-21, January.
    2. Singh, K.M. & Kumar, Abhay & Meena, M.S. & Singh, R.K.P., 2014. "Socio-economic Characterization of Rural Households: A Village Level Analysis in Bihar," MPRA Paper 59681, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 23 Oct 2014.
    3. Singh, K.M. & Singh, R.K.P. & Kumar, Anjani, 2013. "Male Worker Migration and Women Empowerment: The case of Bihar, India," MPRA Paper 49385, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 30 Aug 2013.
    4. Meena, M.S. & Singh, K.M., 2013. "Market Oriented Advisory Services through Women Advisory Service Providers in Punjab, India: The Case of value addition through food processing," MPRA Paper 47829, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 25 Jun 2013.

    More about this item


    Women; NRM; Livelihood; Gender issue;

    JEL classification:

    • Q0 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - General
    • Q1 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Agriculture
    • Q19 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Agriculture - - - Other

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