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Changing patterns of Pakistani emigrants and institutional framework


  • Mohammad, Irfan


This paper attempts at documenting and analysing the volume and spatial pattern of Pakistani emigration during 1990's. Also an effort is made to describe the institutional structure, workers grievances and redressal mechanism. The findings of the research exercise are presented into four sections. Using the information pertaining to annual placement of workers mostly in the middle East and estimates provided by Pakistani Missions abroad the changes in the spatial spread of emigrants is detailed in the first section. Also sketchy information on illegal migration is described. Major findings of the past studies on consequences of emigration are briefly added too. Institutional framework related to emigration is the subject matter of the second section. Recruitment industry and cost of migration is briefly described. Nature of the trade unions and the possible role in alleviating the problems of the emigrants finds its place in this section too. Third section briefly describes the existing macro-economic context, the GDP growth, employment and unemployment. On the basis of these the potential for emigration is assessed. Concluding remarks containing suggestion regarding instituting a monitoring mechanism, improvement of institutional structures and involvement of trade unions are presented in the final section.

Suggested Citation

  • Mohammad, Irfan, 1999. "Changing patterns of Pakistani emigrants and institutional framework," MPRA Paper 38620, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:38620

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Amjad, Rashid, 1989. "Economic impact of migration to the Middle East on the major Asian labour sending countries - an overview," MPRA Paper 38134, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    2. G.M. Arif & Mohammad Irfan, 1997. "Population Mobility across the Pakistani Border: Fifty Years Experience," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 36(4), pages 989-1009.
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    More about this item


    emigration; institutional structure; workers grievances and redressal; illegal migration; consequences of emigration; Institutional framework; cost of migration; recruitment;

    JEL classification:

    • F22 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - International Migration
    • O15 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Economic Development: Human Resources; Human Development; Income Distribution; Migration
    • R23 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Household Analysis - - - Regional Migration; Regional Labor Markets; Population


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