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Canonical Representation Of Option Prices and Greeks with Implications for Market Timing

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  • Cadogan, Godfrey

Abstract

We introduce a canonical representation of call options, and propose a solution to two open problems in option pricing theory. The first problem was posed by (Kassouf, 1969, pg. 694) seeking “theoretical substantiation” for his robust option pricing power law which eschewed assumptions about risk attitudes, rejected risk neutrality, and made no assumptions about stock price distribution. The second problem was posed by (Scott, 1987, pp. 423-424) who could not find a unique solution to the call option price in his option pricing model with stochastic volatility–without appealing to an equilibrium asset pricing model by Hull and White (1987), and concluded: “[w]e cannot determine the price of a call option without knowing the price of another call on the same stock”. First, we show that under certain conditions derivative assets are superstructures of the underlying. Hence any option pricing or derivative pricing model in a given number field, based on an anticipating variable in an extended field, with coefficients in a subfield containing the underlying, is admissible for market timing. For the anticipating variable is an algebraic number that generates the subfield in which it is the root of an equation. Accordingly, any polynomial which satisfies those criteria is admissible for price discovery and or market timing. Therefore, at least for empirical purposes, elaborate models of mathematical physics or otherwise are unnecessary for pricing derivatives because much simpler adaptive polynomials in suitable algebraic numbers are functionally equivalent. Second, we prove, analytically, that Kassouf (1969) power law specification for option pricing is functionally equivalent to Black and Scholes (1973); Merton (1973) in an algebraic number field containing the underlying. In fact, we introduce a canonical polynomial representation theory of call option pricing convex in time to maturity, and algebraic number of the underlying–with coefficients based on observables in a subfield. Thus, paving the way for Wold decomposition of option prices, and subsequently laying a theoretical foundation for a GARCH option pricing model. Third, our canonical representation theory has an inherent regenerative multifactor decomposition of call option price that (1) induces a duality theorem for call option prices, and (2) permits estimation of risk factor exposure for Greeks by standard [polynomial] regression procedures. Thereby providing a theoretical (a) basis for option pricing of Greeks, and (b) solving Scott’s dual call option problem a fortiori with our duality theory in tandem with Riesz representation theory. Fourth, when the Wold decomposition procedure is applied we are able to construct an empirical pricing kernel for call option based on residuals from a model of risk exposure to persistent and transient risk factors.

Suggested Citation

  • Cadogan, Godfrey, 2010. "Canonical Representation Of Option Prices and Greeks with Implications for Market Timing," MPRA Paper 23426, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:23426
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    File URL: https://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/23426/1/MPRA_paper_23426.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Jun Pan & Allen M. Poteshman, 2006. "The Information in Option Volume for Future Stock Prices," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 19(3), pages 871-908.
    2. Robert Engle, 2004. "Risk and Volatility: Econometric Models and Financial Practice," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 94(3), pages 405-420, June.
    3. Dilip B. Madan & Frank Milne, 1991. "Option Pricing With V. G. Martingale Components," Mathematical Finance, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 1(4), pages 39-55.
    4. Grossman, Sanford J & Stiglitz, Joseph E, 1980. "On the Impossibility of Informationally Efficient Markets," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 70(3), pages 393-408, June.
    5. Chernov, Mikhail, 2003. "Empirical reverse engineering of the pricing kernel," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 116(1-2), pages 329-364.
    6. Bollerslev, Tim, 1986. "Generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 31(3), pages 307-327, April.
    7. Madan, Dilip B & Seneta, Eugene, 1990. "The Variance Gamma (V.G.) Model for Share Market Returns," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 63(4), pages 511-524, October.
    8. Black, Fischer & Scholes, Myron S, 1973. "The Pricing of Options and Corporate Liabilities," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 81(3), pages 637-654, May-June.
    9. Jin-Chuan Duan, 1995. "The Garch Option Pricing Model," Mathematical Finance, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 5(1), pages 13-32.
    10. David Easley & Maureen O'Hara & P.S. Srinivas, 1998. "Option Volume and Stock Prices: Evidence on Where Informed Traders Trade," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 53(2), pages 431-465, April.
    11. Hull, John C & White, Alan D, 1987. " The Pricing of Options on Assets with Stochastic Volatilities," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 42(2), pages 281-300, June.
    12. Kassouf, S. T., 1976. "The lag structure of option price," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 4(4), pages 303-310, November.
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    Cited by:

    1. Godfrey Charles-Cadogan, 2012. "Alpha Representation For Active Portfolio Management and High Frequency Trading In Seemingly Efficient Markets," Papers 1206.2662, arXiv.org.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    number theory; price discovery; derivatives pricing; asset pricing; canonical representation; Wold decomposition; empirical pricing kernel; option Greeks; dual option pricing;

    JEL classification:

    • C51 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric Modeling - - - Model Construction and Estimation
    • G12 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Asset Pricing; Trading Volume; Bond Interest Rates
    • D81 - Microeconomics - - Information, Knowledge, and Uncertainty - - - Criteria for Decision-Making under Risk and Uncertainty
    • G11 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Portfolio Choice; Investment Decisions
    • G13 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Contingent Pricing; Futures Pricing

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