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Defense and Inequality: Evidence from Selected ASIAN Countries


  • Hirnissa, M.T
  • Habibullah, M.S.
  • Baharom, A.H.


This paper examines the causality between military expenditure and income inequality in selected Asian countries namely Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore, Philippines, India and South Korea for the period 1970-2005. Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) bounds testing procedure is employed to (1) analyze the impact of military expenditure on income inequality and (2) the impact of income inequality on military expenditure as well. Interestingly our results indicate one way causality running from military expenditure to income inequality only for the case of Malaysia and bidirectional causality for the case of Singapore. As for the remaining countries, no meaningful relationship could be detected and it can be seen as sign of good governance in these countries.

Suggested Citation

  • Hirnissa, M.T & Habibullah, M.S. & Baharom, A.H., 2008. "Defense and Inequality: Evidence from Selected ASIAN Countries," MPRA Paper 11916, University Library of Munich, Germany.
  • Handle: RePEc:pra:mprapa:11916

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. M. Hashem Pesaran & Yongcheol Shin & Richard J. Smith, 2001. "Bounds testing approaches to the analysis of level relationships," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 16(3), pages 289-326.
    2. Julide Yildirim & Selami Sezgin & Nadir Ocal, 2005. "Military Expenditure And Economic Growth In Middle Eastern Countries: A Dynamic Panel Data Analysis," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 16(4), pages 283-295.
    3. Kollias, Christos & Manolas, George & Paleologou, Suzanna-Maria, 2004. "Defence expenditure and economic growth in the European Union: A causality analysis," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 26(5), pages 553-569, July.
    4. Julide Yildirim & Nadir Ocal, 2006. "Arms Race And Economic Growth: The Case Of India And Pakistan," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 17(1), pages 37-45.
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    Cited by:

    1. Ucal, Meltem & Karabulut, Gokhan & Bilgin, Mehmet Huseyin, 2009. "Military Expenditures and Inequality: Empirical Evidence from Israel," MPRA Paper 48643, University Library of Munich, Germany.

    More about this item


    defense spending; ARDL; Income Inequality;

    JEL classification:

    • E24 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment - - - Employment; Unemployment; Wages; Intergenerational Income Distribution; Aggregate Human Capital; Aggregate Labor Productivity
    • E20 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment - - - General (includes Measurement and Data)

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