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Trends in Inequality, Welfare, and Growth in Pakistan, 1963-64 to 2004-05

Author

Listed:
  • Nadia Zakir

    (Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, Islamabad)

  • Muhammad Idrees

    (Quaid-i-Azam Univesity, Islamabad)

Abstract

The present study investigates the trends in inequality, welfare, and growth based on per capita household income/consumption in Pakistan, both its rural and urban areas, from 1963-64 to 2004-05. It employs Gini coefficient to measure inequalities and the Sen welfare index to estimate welfare. Real per capita mean incomes/consumption are worked out to analyse growth. The study finds fluctuating trends in inequality, and rising trends in both welfare and growth. In general, inequality, welfare, and growth remain higher in the urban areas. The study finds income inequality to be more severe as compared to consumption inequality.

Suggested Citation

  • Nadia Zakir & Muhammad Idrees, 2009. "Trends in Inequality, Welfare, and Growth in Pakistan, 1963-64 to 2004-05," PIDE-Working Papers 2009:53, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:pid:wpaper:2009:53
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Zafar Mahmood, 1984. "Income Inequality in Pakistan. An Analysis of Existing Evidence," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 23(2-3), pages 365-379.
    2. Geoffrey A. Jehle, 1992. "An Islamic Perspective on Inequality in Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 31(3), pages 295-316.
    3. S.M. Naseem, 1973. "Mass Poverty in Pakistan. Some Preliminary Findings," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 12(4), pages 317-360.
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    Cited by:

    1. Subhani, Muhammad Imtiaz & Hasan, Syed Akif & Osman, Ms. Amber, 2012. "Do consumers buy bread and diamond with the same attachment?," MPRA Paper 45094, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    2. Muhammad Touseef-Ur-Rehman & Usman Mustafa & Humayun Rashid, 2015. "Trends of Income Inequality and Polarisation in Pakistan for the Period 1990-2008," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 54(4), pages 447-467.
    3. Hasan, Syed Akif & Subhani, Muhammad Imtiaz & Osman, Mohammad, 2012. "Co-movements of consumption patterns of high and low involvement products," MPRA Paper 37659, University Library of Munich, Germany.

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Income Distribution; Welfare; Per Capita Income; Gini Coefficient; Pakistan;

    JEL classification:

    • D31 - Microeconomics - - Distribution - - - Personal Income and Wealth Distribution
    • D63 - Microeconomics - - Welfare Economics - - - Equity, Justice, Inequality, and Other Normative Criteria and Measurement

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