IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Financial crises: A survey


  • Amir Sufi
  • Alan M. Taylor


Financial crises have large deleterious effects on economic activity, and as such have been the focus of a large body of research. This study surveys the existing literature on financial crises, exploring how crises are measured, whether they are predictable, and why they are associated with economic contractions. Historical narrative techniques continue to form the backbone for measuring crises, but there have been exciting developments in using quantitative data as well. Crises are predictable with growth in credit and elevated asset prices playing an especially important role; recent research points convincingly to the importance of behavioral biases in explaining such predictability. The negative consequences of a crisis are due to both the crisis itself but also to the imbalances that precede a crisis. Crises do not occur randomly, and, as a result, an understanding of financial crises requires an investigation into the booms that precede them.

Suggested Citation

  • Amir Sufi & Alan M. Taylor, 2021. "Financial crises: A survey," NBER Working Papers 29155, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  • Handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:29155

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    Other versions of this item:


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Collard, Fabrice & Boissay, Frédéric & Galì, Jordi & Manea, Cristina, 2021. "Monetary Policy and Endogenous Financial Crises," TSE Working Papers 21-1277, Toulouse School of Economics (TSE), revised Apr 2023.
    2. Ziwei Mei & Liugang Sheng & Zhentao Shi, 2023. "Nickell Bias in Panel Local Projection: Financial Crises Are Worse Than You Think," Papers 2302.13455,, revised Oct 2023.
    3. Pedro Bordalo & Nicola Gennaioli & Andrei Shleifer, 2022. "Overreaction and Diagnostic Expectations in Macroeconomics," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 36(3), pages 223-244, Summer.
    4. Ristolainen, Kim & Roukka, Tomi & Nyberg, Henri, 2024. "A thousand words tell more than just numbers: Financial crises and historical headlines," Journal of Financial Stability, Elsevier, vol. 70(C).
    5. Akhmadieva, Veronika, 2022. "Fiscal adjustment in a panel of countries 1870–2016," Journal of Comparative Economics, Elsevier, vol. 50(2), pages 555-568.
    6. Eiblmeier, Sebastian, 2023. "Differential Effects of Unconventional Monetary Policy," Hannover Economic Papers (HEP) dp-707, Leibniz Universität Hannover, Wirtschaftswissenschaftliche Fakultät.
    7. Fernandez-Gallardo, Alvaro, 2023. "Preventing financial disasters: Macroprudential policy and financial crises," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 151(C).
    8. Rachel Cho & Rodolphe Desbordes & Markus Eberhardt, 2022. "The causal effects of the darker side of financial development," Discussion Papers 2022-04, University of Nottingham, GEP.
    9. Ahmad W. Bitar & Nathan de Carvalho & Valentin Gatignol, 2023. "Covariance matrix estimation for robust portfolio allocation," Working Papers hal-04046454, HAL.
    10. Claudia M. Buch & Linda S. Goldberg, 2024. "International Banking and Nonbank Financial Intermediation: Global Liquidity, Regulation, and Implications," Staff Reports 1091, Federal Reserve Bank of New York.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • E32 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Prices, Business Fluctuations, and Cycles - - - Business Fluctuations; Cycles
    • E44 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Money and Interest Rates - - - Financial Markets and the Macroeconomy
    • E7 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Macro-Based Behavioral Economics
    • G01 - Financial Economics - - General - - - Financial Crises
    • G10 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - General (includes Measurement and Data)
    • N20 - Economic History - - Financial Markets and Institutions - - - General, International, or Comparative

    NEP fields

    This paper has been announced in the following NEP Reports:


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:nbr:nberwo:29155. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    We have no bibliographic references for this item. You can help adding them by using this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: the person in charge (email available below). General contact details of provider: .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service. RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.