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Competition and R&D Cooperation with Universities and Competitors

This paper analyzes the relationship between competition and R&D cooperation with universities and competitors. Our simple model predicts that more competitors reduce the incentives for horizontal cooperation as it diminishes the gains from “collusion”. Assuming that the value of synergies and spillovers created by cooperation depends on competition intensity reveals two distinct and opposing incentives for cooperation. While synergies foster R&D cooperation, spillovers may hinder cooperation. We mainly hypothesize that university cooperation corresponds to product innovation and hence quality competition, while horizontal cooperation lead to process innovations and therefore relates to price competition. We test these hypotheses based on Swiss firm-level panel data controlling for simultaneity of cooperation decisions and endogeneity of competition. Our empirical analysis supports the relevance of distinguishing between competition dimensions and cooperation partners, respectively. We find that price competition matters for both university and horizontal cooperation and it takes the form of an inverted U-shape. On the contrary, quality competition only matters for university cooperation and the relationship shows a U-form. Moreover we see that the number of principal competitors is significantly related only to cooperation between competitors and the relationship shows an inverted U-form. Hence, markets with a medium number of competitors are more receptive for horizontal cooperation. In sum these findings advance our understanding of the relationship between innovation and competition policy.

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Paper provided by KOF Swiss Economic Institute, ETH Zurich in its series KOF Working papers with number 11-275.

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Length: 28 pages
Date of creation: Feb 2011
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:kof:wpskof:11-275
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  16. Philippe Aghion & Nicholas Bloom & Richard Blundell & Rachel Griffith & Peter Howitt, 2002. "Competition and innovation: an inverted U relationship," IFS Working Papers W02/04, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
  17. Beise, Marian & Stahl, Harald, 1998. "Public research and industrial innovations in Germany," ZEW Discussion Papers 98-37, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
  18. Hernán, Roberto & Marín Uribe, Pedro Luis & Siotis, Georges, 2000. "An Empirical Evaluation Of The Determinants Of Research Joint Venture Formation," CEPR Discussion Papers 2442, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  19. Joanne E. Oxley & Rachelle C. Sampson & Brian S. Silverman, 2009. "Arms Race or Détente? How Interfirm Alliance Announcements Change the Stock Market Valuation of Rivals," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 55(8), pages 1321-1337, August.
  20. Giuseppe Medda & Claudio Piga & Donald S Siegel, 2005. "University R&D and Firm Productivity: Evidence from Italy," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 30(2_2), pages 199-205, 01.
  21. Veugelers, Reinhilde & Cassiman, Bruno, 1999. "Make and buy in innovation strategies: evidence from Belgian manufacturing firms," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 28(1), pages 63-80, January.
  22. Martin Woerter, 2011. "Driving forces for research and development strategies: an empirical analysis based on firm-level panel data," Economics of Innovation and New Technology, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 20(7), pages 611-636, March.
  23. Spyros Arvanitis & Nora Sydow & Martin Woerter, 2008. "Is there any Impact of University–Industry Knowledge Transfer on Innovation and Productivity? An Empirical Analysis Based on Swiss Firm Data," Review of Industrial Organization, Springer, vol. 32(2), pages 77-94, March.
  24. Link, Albert N. & Paton, David & Siegel, Donald S., 2002. "An analysis of policy initiatives to promote strategic research partnerships," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 31(8-9), pages 1459-1466, December.
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  27. Teece, David J., 1992. "Competition, cooperation, and innovation : Organizational arrangements for regimes of rapid technological progress," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 1-25, June.
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