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Identifying demand for health resources using waiting times information

  • Richard Blundell

    ()

    (Institute for Fiscal Studies and IFS and UCL)

  • Frank Windmeijer

    ()

    (Institute for Fiscal Studies and University of Bristol)

less skilled workers has deteriorated, either through their ability to secure jobs and/or their ability to earn a decent wage. Some have linked this decline to modern computing technologies. This paper surveys the evidence on the effects of technical change on skills, wages and employment by examining the micro-econometric evidence (we take this to include studies at the industry, firm, plant and individual levels). We focus on over 70 empirical studies that have used direct measures of technology (rather than associating technology with a residual time trend). We first point to three basic methodological problems relating to endogeneity, fixed effects and measurement. Our survey comes to the following tentative conclusions: (i) there is a strong effect of technology on skills in the cross section which appears reasonably robust to various econometric problems; (ii) there is a strong effect of diffusion of technologies on wages in the cross section which is not robust to endogeneity and fixed effects; (iii) at the firm level product innovations appear to raise employment growth, but there is no clear evidence of a robust effect (either positive or negative) of process innovations or R&D on jobs.

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File URL: http://www.ifs.org.uk/wps/wp0003.pdf
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Paper provided by Institute for Fiscal Studies in its series IFS Working Papers with number W00/03.

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Length: 24 pp
Date of creation: Apr 2000
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:ifs:ifsewp:00/03
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  1. Gravelle, H. S. E., 1990. "Rationing trials by waiting: Welfare implications," International Review of Law and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 10(3), pages 255-270, December.
  2. Richard Blundell & Frank Windmeijer, 1997. "Cluster effects and simultaneity in multilevel models," IFS Working Papers W97/05, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
  3. Gourieroux, C & Laffont, J-J & Monfort, A, 1980. "Disequilibrium Econometrics in Simultaneous Equations Systems," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 48(1), pages 75-96, January.
  4. Härdle, W.K., 1992. "Applied Nonparametric Methods," Discussion Paper 1992-6, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
  5. Lindsay, Cotton M & Feigenbaum, Bernard, 1984. "Rationing by Waiting Lists," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 74(3), pages 404-17, June.
  6. Oliver LINTON, . "Applied nonparametric methods," Statistic und Oekonometrie 9312, Humboldt Universitaet Berlin.
  7. Newey, W.K. & Powell, J.L. & Walker, J.R., 1990. "Semiparametric Estimation Of Selection Models: Some Empirical Results," Working papers 9001, Wisconsin Madison - Social Systems.
  8. Roy Carr-Hill & Geoffrey Hardman & Stephen Martin & Stuart Peacock & Trevor Sheldon & Peter Smith, 1994. "A formula for distributing NHS revenues based on small area use of hospital beds," Working Papers 022cheop, Centre for Health Economics, University of York.
  9. Martin, Stephen & Smith, Peter C., 1999. "Rationing by waiting lists: an empirical investigation," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 71(1), pages 141-164, January.
  10. Heckman, James, 2013. "Sample selection bias as a specification error," Applied Econometrics, Publishing House "SINERGIA PRESS", vol. 31(3), pages 129-137.
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