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Genes, security, tolerance and happiness

Author

Listed:
  • Ronald Inglehart

    () (Higher School of Economics)

  • Svetlana Borinskaya

    () (Institute of General Genetics, Moscow, Russia)

  • Anna Cotter

    () (University of Michigan)

  • Jaanus Harro

    () (Department of Psychology, University of Tartu, Estonian Centre of Behavioral and Health Sciences)

  • Ronald C. Inglehart

    () (University of Michigan)

  • Eduard Ponarin

    () (Higher School of Economics)

  • Christian Welzel

    () (Center for the Study of Democracy, Leuphana University, Scharnhorststr.)

Abstract

This paper discusses correlations between certain genetic characterestics of the human populations and their aggregate levels of tolerance and happiness. We argue that a major cause of the systematic clustering of genetic characteristics may be climatic conditions linked with relatively high or low levels of parasite. This may lead certain populations to develop gene pools linked with different levels of avoidance of strangers, which helped shape different cultures, both of which eventually helped shape economic development. Still more recently, this combination of distinctive cultural and economic and perhaps genetic factors has led some societies to more readily adopt gender equality and high levels of social tolerance, than others. More tolerant societies tend to be happier because they create a more relaxed environment conducive to happiness.

Suggested Citation

  • Ronald Inglehart & Svetlana Borinskaya & Anna Cotter & Jaanus Harro & Ronald C. Inglehart & Eduard Ponarin & Christian Welzel, 2013. "Genes, security, tolerance and happiness," HSE Working papers WP BRP 31/SOC/2013, National Research University Higher School of Economics.
  • Handle: RePEc:hig:wpaper:31/soc/2013
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    File URL: http://www.hse.ru/data/2013/12/30/1342090586/31SOC2013.pdf
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    Cited by:

    1. Berggren, Niclas & Nilsson, Therese, 2016. "Tolerance in the United States: Does economic freedom transform racial, religious, political and sexual attitudes?," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 45(S), pages 53-70.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    genetic research; World Values Survey; happiness; tolerance.;

    JEL classification:

    • E11 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - General Aggregative Models - - - Marxian; Sraffian; Kaleckian

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