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Broadening Access to Primary Education: Contract Teacher Programs and Their Impact on Education Outcomes in Africa – An Econometric Evaluation for Niger

Author

Listed:
  • Jean Bourdon

    () (IREDU - Institut de recherche sur l'éducation : Sociologie et Economie de l'Education - UB - Université de Bourgogne)

  • Markus Frölich

    (UCL - University College of London [London])

  • Katharina Michaelowa

    (HWWA - Hamburg Institute of International Economics - Hamburgisches Welts-Wirtschafts Archiv)

Abstract

For Sub-Saharan Africa as a whole, but particularly for countries in the Sahel zone, full primary enrolment and completion at acceptable quality as codified in the Millennium Development Goals and the Education for All objectives still remains a major challenge. In order to enhance education supply, many of these countries have launched large scale teacher recruitment programs in recent years, whereby the teachers are no longer engaged in civil servant positions, but on the basis of fixed-term contracts typically implying considerably lower salaries and a sharply reduced duration of professional training. While this policy has led to a boost of primary enrolment, stakeholders in the education system generally fear an important loss in the quality of education. Using data from the "Program on the Analysis of Education Systems" (PASEC) for Niger in 2000/2001, we show that once confounding factors are controlled for, the performance of contract teachers is not generally worse than the performance of other teachers. Matching students taught by contract teachers to those taught by civil servants provides no significant evidence of an advantage of the latter in grade 5. In grade 2, there is evidence for a sizeable advantage of traditional teachers - but only as long as job experience is not appropriately taken into account. Given the strong impact on enrolment and the generally insignificant effect on education quality, the overall assessment of the program remains clearly positive.

Suggested Citation

  • Jean Bourdon & Markus Frölich & Katharina Michaelowa, 2006. "Broadening Access to Primary Education: Contract Teacher Programs and Their Impact on Education Outcomes in Africa – An Econometric Evaluation for Niger," Post-Print halshs-00086003, HAL.
  • Handle: RePEc:hal:journl:halshs-00086003
    Note: View the original document on HAL open archive server: https://halshs.archives-ouvertes.fr/halshs-00086003
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    Cited by:

    1. Bourdon, Jean & Frölich, Markus & Michaelowa, Katharina, 2007. "Teacher Shortages, Teacher Contracts and their Impact on Education in Africa," IZA Discussion Papers 2844, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    2. Ayako Wakano, 2016. "The effect of ratio between PTA teachers and Government employed teachers on Education outcomes in Kenya Primary Schools," Discussion Papers in Economics and Business 16-14, Osaka University, Graduate School of Economics and Osaka School of International Public Policy (OSIPP).
    3. Jean Bourdon, 2006. "Coût et financement de l'éducation primaire en Afrique Subsaharienne," Post-Print halshs-00135310, HAL.
    4. Ayako Wakano, 2016. "The effect of locally hired teachers on school outcomes (the Dose response function estimation evidence from Kenya)," Discussion Papers in Economics and Business 16-15, Osaka University, Graduate School of Economics and Osaka School of International Public Policy (OSIPP).
    5. Michaelowa, Katharina & Wechtler, Annika, 2006. "Grundbildung in Malawi: Neuere Entwicklungen der Sektorpolitik, realistische Handlungsperspektiven und Vorschläge für ein gestuftes Monitoringsystem," HWWI Policy Papers 2-1, Hamburg Institute of International Economics (HWWI).
    6. Luis Beccaria & Pablo Alfredo Gluzmann, 2013. "Medición de los Ingresos y la Pobreza Oficial en América Latina y el Caribe," CEDLAS, Working Papers 0148, CEDLAS, Universidad Nacional de La Plata.
    7. Christopher F. Hein & Rebecca Allen, 2013. "Teacher Quality in Sub-Saharan Africa: Pupil-fixed effects estimates for twelve countries," DoQSS Working Papers 13-08, Department of Quantitative Social Science - UCL Institute of Education, University College London.
    8. Sebastian Galiani & Ricardo Perez-Truglia, 2013. "School Management in Developing Countries," CEDLAS, Working Papers 0147, CEDLAS, Universidad Nacional de La Plata.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Teacher; Recruitment; Teacher efficiency; Econometric analysis; Africa; Primary education; Enseignant enseignement primaire; Recrutement des enseignants; Statut; Contrat de travail; Efficacité des enseignants; Analyse économétrique; Niger; Afrique; Enseignement primaire;

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