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From closed to open: A comparative stakeholder approach for developing open innovation activities in SMEs

Author

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  • Sana Saidi

    (ESC Troyes - École Supérieure de Commerce de Troyes - Groupe ESC Troyes en Champagne)

  • Anne Berthinier-Poncet

    (LIRSA - Laboratoire interdisciplinaire de recherche en sciences de l'action - CNAM - Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers [CNAM] - HESAM - HESAM Université - Communauté d'universités et d'établissements Hautes écoles Sorbonne Arts et métiers université)

  • Allane Madanamoothoo

    (ESC Troyes - École Supérieure de Commerce de Troyes - Groupe ESC Troyes en Champagne)

  • Wim Vanhaverbeke

    (UNIS - University of Surrey)

  • Simona Grama-Vigouroux

    (ESC Troyes - École Supérieure de Commerce de Troyes - Groupe ESC Troyes en Champagne)

Abstract

Recent literature on open innovation (OI) highlights the need for studies regarding the factors that influence firms to switch from a closed to an OI strategy. At the same time, stakeholder literature points out the scarcity of knowledge regarding antecedent factors fostering collaboration with the firm's stakeholders and their engagement for higher value creation. To fill these gaps, we propose an analytical framework for implementing a strategic OI process through the development of stakeholder engagement. Our framework comprises 17 factors grouped in five levers: knowledge, collaboration, organizational, strategic, and financial. We empirically applied this framework to two industrial SMEs. A qualitative study was conducted based on semi-structured interviews with internal and external stakeholders of both firms. The results show that one company successfully implemented the OI process, while the other struggled to evolve from a traditionally closed innovation model to a more open model. Analyzing the results, we identified several aspects that could explain this difference. These aspects concern the OI activities performed by both firms, the combination of the five levers into a coherent OI approach, stakeholder engagement, and the characteristics of the CEOs. The current study contributes insights for theory and practice, especially as it proposes an original framework for developing a strategic OI process that integrates a stakeholder approach.

Suggested Citation

  • Sana Saidi & Anne Berthinier-Poncet & Allane Madanamoothoo & Wim Vanhaverbeke & Simona Grama-Vigouroux, 2020. "From closed to open: A comparative stakeholder approach for developing open innovation activities in SMEs," Post-Print hal-02493174, HAL.
  • Handle: RePEc:hal:journl:hal-02493174
    DOI: 10.1016/j.jbusres.2019.08.016
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    2. Baira Faulks & Yinghua Song & Moses Waiganjo & Bojan Obrenovic & Danijela Godinic, 2021. "Impact of Empowering Leadership, Innovative Work, and Organizational Learning Readiness on Sustainable Economic Performance: An Empirical Study of Companies in Russia during the COVID-19 Pandemic," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 13(22), pages 1-27, November.
    3. El Maalouf, Nicole & Bahemia, Hanna, 2023. "The implementation of inbound open innovation at the firm level: A dynamic capability perspective," Technovation, Elsevier, vol. 122(C).
    4. Hannu Littunen & Timo Tohmo & Esa Storhammar, 2021. "Innovation among SMEs in Finland: The impact of stakeholder engagement and firm-level characteristics," Journal of Entrepreneurship, Management and Innovation, Fundacja Upowszechniająca Wiedzę i Naukę "Cognitione", vol. 17(4), pages 157-196.
    5. Ioannis Lysaridis & Panos T. Chountalas & Anastasios I. Magoutas, 2023. "Critical Success Factors in the Technology Commercialization Process: A Comparative Case Study of International Licensing Alliances among Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises," Administrative Sciences, MDPI, vol. 14(1), pages 1-17, December.
    6. Stefan, Ioana & Hurmelinna-Laukkanen, Pia & Vanhaverbeke, Wim & Oikarinen, Eeva-Liisa, 2022. "The dark side of open innovation: Individual affective responses as hidden tolls of the paradox of openness," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 138(C), pages 360-373.

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