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Migration, Self-selection and Returns to Education in the WAEMU

Author

Listed:
  • Philippe de Vreyer

    (DIAL - Développement, institutions et analyses de long terme, LEDA-DIAL - Développement, Institutions et Modialisation - LEDa - Laboratoire d'Economie de Dauphine - IRD - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement - Université Paris-Dauphine - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, LEDa - Laboratoire d'Economie de Dauphine - Université Paris-Dauphine)

  • Flore Gubert

    (DIAL - Développement, institutions et analyses de long terme, IRD [Guinée] - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement)

  • François Roubaud

    (DIAL - Développement, institutions et analyses de long terme, IRD [Guinée] - Institut de Recherche pour le Développement)

Abstract

We use a unique set of identical labour force surveys that allow to observe, at the same time, migrants in seven WAEMU countries and their country of origin's labour market. We use these data first to document the patterns of migration flows in the sub-region, second to estimate the determinants of migration behaviour across these countries and to correct the estimated returns to education for the endogeneity of location choice. We finally estimate a structural model to evaluate the impact of expected earnings differentials on the probability of selecting a particular country to reside in. Our results show that Cote d'Ivoire remains the most important immigration country in the sub-region. Our data also suggests that Mali and Burkina Faso have been and still are major labour-exporting countries, largely towards Cote d'Ivoire. Benin and Togo, by contrast, combine both emigration and immigration. Looking at migrants characteristics we find that migrants tend to be less educated than non migrants in both their origin and destination countries, are more likely than natives to work in the informal sector and that they receive lower wages. Our econometric results suggest that not holding account of international migration in estimating returns to education yields upward biased estimates in three countries out of seven and downward biased estimates in two others. However, disparities in returns to education between capital cities do not vanish, suggesting that country-specific amenities and other un-measurable non-wage variables play important roles in the location choice of individuals with different levels of education. We also find that expected earnings differentials have a very significant effect on the choice probabilities: all else equal, people tend to live in countries in which their expected earnings are higher than elsewhere.

Suggested Citation

  • Philippe de Vreyer & Flore Gubert & François Roubaud, 2010. "Migration, Self-selection and Returns to Education in the WAEMU," Post-Print hal-01374352, HAL.
  • Handle: RePEc:hal:journl:hal-01374352
    Note: View the original document on HAL open archive server: https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01374352
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Albert Bollard & David McKenzie & Melanie Morten, 2009. "The Remitting Patterns of African Migrants in the OECD," CReAM Discussion Paper Series 0921, Centre for Research and Analysis of Migration (CReAM), Department of Economics, University College London.
    2. Joshua Evan Blumenstock & Nathan Eagle & Marcel Fafchamps, 2011. "Risk and Reciprocity Over the Mobile Phone Network: Evidence from Rwanda," Working Papers 11-25, NET Institute, revised Sep 2011.
    3. Bertoli, S. & Fernández-Huertas Moraga, J. & Ortega, F., 2013. "Crossing the border: Self-selection, earnings and individual migration decisions," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 101(C), pages 75-91.
    4. repec:dau:papers:123456789/5128 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. Isabelle Chort & Jean-Noël Senne, 2012. "Intra-household Selection into Migration : Evidence from a Matched Sample of Migrants and Origin Households in Senegal," Post-Print hal-01516775, HAL.
    6. Isabelle Chort & Jean-Noël Senne, 2017. "Intra-household Selection into Migration: Evidence from a Matched Sample of Migrants and Origin Households in Senegal," PSE Working Papers hal-01516104, HAL.
    7. Blumenstock, Joshua E. & Eagle, Nathan & Fafchamps, Marcel, 2016. "Airtime transfers and mobile communications: Evidence in the aftermath of natural disasters," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 120(C), pages 157-181.
    8. Isabelle Chort & Jean-Noël Senne, 2013. "Intra-household Selection into Migration: Evidence from a Matched Sample of Migrants and Origin Households in Senegal," Working Papers halshs-00877071, HAL.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Migration internationale; Rendements de l'éducation; Afrique de l'Ouest; Auto-sélection; Econométrie Appliquée;

    JEL classification:

    • F22 - International Economics - - International Factor Movements and International Business - - - International Migration
    • C35 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Discrete Regression and Qualitative Choice Models; Discrete Regressors; Proportions
    • J31 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Wage Level and Structure; Wage Differentials
    • O15 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development - - - Economic Development: Human Resources; Human Development; Income Distribution; Migration

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