Is Functional Literacy a Prerequesite for Entering the Labor Market? An Analysis of the Determinants of Adult Literacy and Earnings in Ghana
This article analyzes the determinants of literacy and earnings in Ghana. It links literacy and earnings with a variety of factors, including age, gender, family educational background, distance to school, and income. Literacy and age are negatively correlated, suggesting that efforts at strengthening the supply and quality of basic education programs in recent years have been successful in raising literacy rates. Females are less literate than males, controlling for other factors. Parents' education is positively associated with literacy. Distance to the nearest primary school, residency in a rural area, and poverty affect literacy negatively. Functional literacy appears to be a prerequisite for entering the labor market, which may partly explain the lack of return to education other than middle school and technical/professional training. The policy implication of the study is that basic education and literacy programs should target females and poorer households, especially in rural areas.
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|Date of creation:||2000|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: Danmark; Centre for Labour Market and Social Research. Science Park Aarhus Wieds Vej 10C, 8000 Aarhus C, Danmark|
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- James J. Heckman, 1976. "The Common Structure of Statistical Models of Truncation, Sample Selection and Limited Dependent Variables and a Simple Estimator for Such Models," NBER Chapters, in: Annals of Economic and Social Measurement, Volume 5, number 4, pages 475-492 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Francine D. Blau, 1996.
"The Gender Pay Gap,"
NBER Working Papers
5664, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Francine D. Blau & Lawrence Kahn, 1995.
"The Gender Earnings Gap: Some International Evidence,"
in: Differences and Changes in Wage Structures, pages 105-144
National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Francine D. Blau & Lawrence M. Kahn, 1992. "The Gender Earnings Gap: Some International Evidence," NBER Working Papers 4224, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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