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A 1991 social accounting matrix (SAM) for Zimbabwe:


  • Thomas, Marcelle
  • Bautista, Romeo M.


The 1991 Social Accounting Matrix (SAM) for Zimbabwe that we document in this paper is intended to provide benchmark data for economy-wide analysis under the MERRISA Project. Its construction is based on a three-step process: (1) building a macro SAM that presents the aggregative features of the Zimbabwean economy and serves as a control matrix for the micro SAM; (2) disaggregation into a complete but unbalanced micro SAM; and (3) balancing the disaggregated and complete micro SAM using the cross-entropy approach. The macro SAM entries are based on aggregates from a recent, significant revision of the Zimbabwe national accounts for 1991. The structure of the micro SAM is a disaggregated version of the macro SAM. The outcome is an 88 by 88 matrix that includes 36 activities, 27 commodities, 9 factors of production (4 labor, 3 capital, and 2 land categories), 5 households groups, and one account each for enterprises, government, investment/saving, and rest-of-the-world. Among the significant features of the Zimbabwean economy that are explicitly taken into account in the SAM structure are the importance of agriculture, the distinction between smallholder and large-scale commercial farms, home consumption by smallholder farm households, and the large marketing margins that reflect inefficiencies in trade and transport infrastructure.

Suggested Citation

  • Thomas, Marcelle & Bautista, Romeo M., 1999. "A 1991 social accounting matrix (SAM) for Zimbabwe:," TMD discussion papers 36, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
  • Handle: RePEc:fpr:tmddps:36

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    Cited by:

    1. Juana, James S. & Mabugu, Ramos E., 2005. "Assessment of smallholder's agriculture's contribution to the economy of Zimbabwe: A social accounting matrix multiplier analysis," Agrekon, Agricultural Economics Association of South Africa (AEASA), vol. 44(3), September.
    2. Juana, James S., 2006. "A quantitative analysis of Zimbabwe's land reform policy: An application of Zimbabwe SAM multipliers," Agrekon, Agricultural Economics Association of South Africa (AEASA), vol. 45(3), September.
    3. Pue-on, Anuwat & Ward, Bert D. & Gan, Christopher E.C., 2010. "The Impact of Capital Intensive Farming in Thailand: A Computable General Equilibrium Approach," 2010 Conference, August 26-27, 2010, Nelson, New Zealand 96816, New Zealand Agricultural and Resource Economics Society.
    4. Dewhurst John & Kerwat Jamal & Molana Hassan, 2010. "Viability of Keeping a Fixed Exchange Rate in an Oil Exporting Country: Some Results for Libya from a Computable General Equilibrium Model," Review of Middle East Economics and Finance, De Gruyter, vol. 5(3), pages 24-45, February.
    5. Pauw, Kalie, 2005. "Forming Representative Household and Factor Groups for a South African SAM," Technical Paper Series 15620, PROVIDE Project.


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