IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this paper

Structural Breaks in Global Stock Markets: Are they caused by Pandemics, Protests or other factors?


  • Joshua A. Ndako

    (Central Bank of Nigeria, Abuja, Nigeria)

  • Terver T. Kumeka

    (University of Ibadan, Nigeria)

  • Festus F. Adedoyin

    (Bournemouth University, UK)

  • Simplice A. Asongu

    (Yaoundé, Cameroon)


The aim of this study is to examine the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and other similar global events on the global stock market. The data used covers 16 countries of the world and a series of quarterly data ranging from 1919Q1 to 2020Q2 for major stock market index was used. The Bai and Perron’s multiple structural break approach were adopted. Different number of break dates is noticed across several regions. While selected sample countries in Europe have at least ten break dates under the period of investigation, we observe for US, Canada and Australia, only twelve break dates. Asia and the other bloc of countries report ten and twelve break dates respectively. Notably, one most prominent causes of structural changes in stock markets (with the exclusion of Germany) appears to be from the GFC, which had inverse effects on major market around the world. The most prominent source of structural breaks in the Asian markets appears to be from the 2008-2009 GFC. In addition, we found evidence of structural breaks in several stock markets in the world, resulting from the 2009-2010 Global Pandemic, that is, the H1N1 virus/pigs Swine Flu; 2003 SARS; MERS; and EBOLA. In addition, as explained above, events have the tendency of unfolding over time; hence matching exact breaks in stock market data to precise events is very unlikely.

Suggested Citation

  • Joshua A. Ndako & Terver T. Kumeka & Festus F. Adedoyin & Simplice A. Asongu, 2022. "Structural Breaks in Global Stock Markets: Are they caused by Pandemics, Protests or other factors?," Working Papers 22/076, European Xtramile Centre of African Studies (EXCAS).
  • Handle: RePEc:exs:wpaper:22/076

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    File Function: Revised version, 2022
    Download Restriction: no

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Cró, Susana & Martins, António Miguel, 2017. "Structural breaks in international tourism demand: Are they caused by crises or disasters?," Tourism Management, Elsevier, vol. 63(C), pages 3-9.
    2. Debolina Biswas, 2020. "Understanding the Economic Growth of West Bengal: A Multiple Structural Breaks Approach," Indian Journal of Human Development, , vol. 14(1), pages 62-75, April.
    3. Kenourgios, Dimitris & Padhi, Puja, 2012. "Emerging markets and financial crises: Regional, global or isolated shocks?," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 22(1), pages 24-38.
    4. Anita Rath, 2020. "Structural breaks in the central government taxes in India, 1950-1951 to 2013-2014," Indian Growth and Development Review, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, vol. 14(1), pages 1-34, May.
    5. Jian Yang & James Kolari & Insik Min, 2003. "Stock market integration and financial crises: the case of Asia," Applied Financial Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 13(7), pages 477-486.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Claudiu Tiberiu Albulescu & Daniel Goyeau & Aviral Kumar Tiwari, 2017. "Co-movements and contagion between international stock index futures markets," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 52(4), pages 1529-1568, June.
    2. Faten Ben Slimane & Mohamed Mehanaoui & Irfan Akbar Kazi, 2013. "How Does the Financial Crisis Affect Volatility Behavior and Transmission Among European Stock Markets?," IJFS, MDPI, vol. 1(3), pages 1-21, August.
    3. Sanjay Sehgal & Payal Jain & Florent Deisting, 2018. "Information Transmission between Mature and Emerging Equity Markets During Normal and Crisis Periods: An Empirical Examination," Journal of Quantitative Economics, Springer;The Indian Econometric Society (TIES), vol. 16(1), pages 185-225, March.
    4. Rajan Sruthi & Santhakumar Shijin, 2020. "Investigating liquidity constraints as a channel of contagion: a regime switching approach," Financial Innovation, Springer;Southwestern University of Finance and Economics, vol. 6(1), pages 1-21, December.
    5. Payal Jain & Sanjay Sehgal, 2019. "An examination of return and volatility spillovers between mature equity markets," Journal of Economics and Finance, Springer;Academy of Economics and Finance, vol. 43(1), pages 180-210, January.
    6. Mohamed, Hazik & Masih, Mansur, 2017. "Stock market comovement among the ASEAN-5 : a causality analysis," MPRA Paper 98781, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    7. Imran Yousaf & Shoaib Ali & Wing-Keung Wong, 2020. "An Empirical Analysis of the Volatility Spillover Effect between World-Leading and the Asian Stock Markets: Implications for Portfolio Management," JRFM, MDPI, vol. 13(10), pages 1-28, September.
    8. Hatice Gaye GENCER & Mehmet Yasin HURATA, 2017. "Risk Transmission and Contagion in the Equity Markets: International Evidence from the Global Financial Crisis," Journal for Economic Forecasting, Institute for Economic Forecasting, vol. 0(3), pages 110-129, September.
    9. Mardi Dungey & Rene Fry & Vance L. Martin, 2006. "Correlation, Contagion, and Asian Evidence," Asian Economic Papers, MIT Press, vol. 5(2), pages 32-72, Spring/Su.
    10. Lee, Chingnun & Shie, Fu Shuen & Chang, Chiao Yi, 2012. "How close a relationship does a capital market have with other such markets? The case of Taiwan from the Asian financial crisis," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 20(3), pages 349-362.
    11. Gannon, Gerard L. & Thuraisamy, Kannan S., 2017. "Sovereign risk and the impact of crisis: Evidence from Latin AmericaAuthor-Name: Batten, Jonathan A," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 77(C), pages 328-350.
    12. Ballester, Laura & Díaz-Mendoza, Ana Carmen & González-Urteaga, Ana, 2019. "A systematic review of sovereign connectedness on emerging economies," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 62(C), pages 157-163.
    13. Sirine Toumi, 2019. "Co-movements amongst Gold and Oil: A Multivariate Time-Varying Asymmetric Approach," International Journal of Finance, Insurance and Risk Management, International Journal of Finance, Insurance and Risk Management, vol. 9(3-4), pages 52-68.
    14. Salah Eddine Sari Hassoun & Khayereddine Salim Adda & Asma Hadjira Sebbane, 2021. "Examining the connection among national tourism expenditure and economic growth in Algeria," Future Business Journal, Springer, vol. 7(1), pages 1-9, December.
    15. Yang, Lixiong & Lee, Chingnun & Shie, Fu Shuen, 2014. "How close a relationship does a capital market have with other markets? A reexamination based on the equal variance test," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 26(C), pages 198-226.
    16. Hachmi Ben Ameur & Waël Louhichi, 2022. "The Brexit impact on European market co-movements," Annals of Operations Research, Springer, vol. 313(2), pages 1387-1403, June.
    17. Neha Seth & Monica Sighania, 2017. "Financial market contagion: selective review of reviews," Qualitative Research in Financial Markets, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, vol. 9(4), pages 391-408, November.
    18. Kenourgios, Dimitris & Asteriou, Dimitrios & Samitas, Aristeidis, 2013. "Testing for asymmetric financial contagion: New evidence from the Asian crisis," The Journal of Economic Asymmetries, Elsevier, vol. 10(2), pages 129-137.
    19. Yarovaya, Larisa & Lau, Marco Chi Keung, 2016. "Stock market comovements around the Global Financial Crisis: Evidence from the UK, BRICS and MIST markets," Research in International Business and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(C), pages 605-619.
    20. Yamamoto, Shugo, 2014. "Transmission of US financial and trade shocks to Asian economies: Implications for spillover of the 2007–2009 US financial crisis," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 27(C), pages 88-103.


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:exs:wpaper:22/076. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Anutechia Asongu Simplice (email available below). General contact details of provider: .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service. RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.