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Drivers of entrepreneurial aspirations at the country lever: the role of start-up motivations and social security

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  • Marco van Gelderen
  • Roy Thurik
  • Jolanda Hessels

Abstract

This paper investigates whether start-up motivations and the level of social security can explain entrepreneurial aspirations. We use country-level data from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) for the year 2005. We distinguish between the necessity motive, independence motive and increase wealth motive and look at entrepreneurial aspirations in terms of innovativeness, job growth expectations and export orientation. As an indicator of a country?s level of social security we take the social security contribution rate (for employer?s and employees) from the World Competitiveness Yearbook. Previous research has found a negative relationship between the level of entrepreneurial activity and social security contributions, suggesting that social security increases the opportunity costs for entrepreneurship. The results of this study complement these previous findings by indicating that social security contributions have a negative influence on the supply of ambitious entrepreneurship in terms of new product or service introductions, job growth and export orientation. Furthermore, our findings indicate that entrepreneurial aspirations in terms of job growth and export relate positively to the increase wealth motive, whereas no significant relationship is found between our aspiration variables and the independence and necessity motives. On the basis of our findings policy directions are presented for an entrepreneurial economy. This is an update of paper H200627.

Suggested Citation

  • Marco van Gelderen & Roy Thurik & Jolanda Hessels, 2007. "Drivers of entrepreneurial aspirations at the country lever: the role of start-up motivations and social security," Scales Research Reports H200710, EIM Business and Policy Research.
  • Handle: RePEc:eim:papers:h200710
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    Cited by:

    1. Jones, Marian V. & Coviello, Nicole & Tang, Yee Kwan, 2011. "International Entrepreneurship research (1989–2009): A domain ontology and thematic analysis," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 26(6), pages 632-659.
    2. Julie Hermans & Marcus Dejardin & Johanna Vanderstraeten & Dendi Ramdani & Erik Stam & Arjen van Witteloostuijn, 2012. "Ambitious entrepreneurship: antecedents and consequences," Working Papers 1210, University of Namur, Department of Economics.
    3. Giacomin, Olivier & Janssen, Frank & Guyot, Jean-luc & Lohest, Olivier, 2011. "Opportunity and/or necessity entrepreneurship? The impact of the socio-economic characteristics of entrepreneurs," MPRA Paper 29506, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    4. Jolanda Hessels & Marco Gelderen & Roy Thurik, 2008. "Entrepreneurial aspirations, motivations, and their drivers," Small Business Economics, Springer, vol. 31(3), pages 323-339, October.
    5. Claudio Mancilla & Yancy Vaillant & Esteban Lafuente, 2011. "HOW ENTREPRENEURIALLY INFLUENTIAL SOCIAL TRAITS AFFECT BUSINESS CREATION AMONGST RURAL IMMIGRANTS: Evidence from Spain," ERSA conference papers ersa10p1464, European Regional Science Association.
    6. Pekka Stenholm & Zoltán J. Ács & Robert Wuebker, 2015. "Exploring country-level institutional arrangements on the rate and type of entrepreneurial activity," Chapters,in: Global Entrepreneurship, Institutions and Incentives, chapter 20, pages 387-404 Edward Elgar Publishing.
    7. Albiol, Judit, 2012. "Business Exits entail greater future levels of entrepreneurship? An empirical analysis at country level," Working Papers 2072/211754, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Department of Economics.
    8. Pete, Stefan & Nagy, Agnes & Matis, Dumitru & Gyorfy, Lehel Zoltan & Benyovszki, Annamaria & Petru, Tunde Petra, 2011. "Early-stage entrepreneurial aspirations in efficiency-driven economies," Journal for Economic Forecasting, Institute for Economic Forecasting, vol. 0(2), pages 5-18, June.
    9. Jolanda Hessels, 2008. "International Entrepreneurship: An Introduction, Framework and Research Agenda," Scales Research Reports H200823, EIM Business and Policy Research.

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