IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/
MyIDEAS: Login to save this paper or follow this series

Public and private sector wages interactions in a general equilibrium model

  • Fernàndez-de-Córdoba, Gonzalo
  • Pérez, Javier J.
  • Torres, José L.

This paper develops a dynamic general equilibrium model in which the public and the private sector interact in the labor market. Previous studies that analyze the labor market effects of public sector employment and wages have mostly assumed exogenous rules for public wage and public employment. We show that theories that equalize wages with marginal products in the private sector can rationalize the interaction of public and private sector wages when extended to accommodate a non-trivial government sector/public sector union that endogenously determines public employment and wages. Our model suggests a positive correlation between public and private sector wages. Any increase in tax revenues, coupled with the existence of a positive public-private sector wage gap, makes working in the public sector an attractive option. Thus, a positive neutral productivity shock increases public and private sector wages. More interestingly, even a private-sector specific productivity shock spills-over to the public sector, increasing public wages. These facts lend some support to the wage leading role of the private sector. Nevertheless, at the same time, a positive shock to public sector wages would lead to an increase in private sector wages, via the flow of workers from the private to the public sector. JEL Classification: C32, J30, J51, J52, E62, E63, H50

If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.

File URL: http://www.ecb.europa.eu/pub/pdf/scpwps/ecbwp1099.pdf
Download Restriction: no

Paper provided by European Central Bank in its series Working Paper Series with number 1099.

as
in new window

Length:
Date of creation: Oct 2009
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:ecb:ecbwps:20091099
Contact details of provider: Postal: 60640 Frankfurt am Main, Germany
Phone: +49 69 1344 0
Fax: +49 69 1344 6000
Web page: http://www.ecb.europa.eu/
Email:


More information through EDIRC

References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:

as in new window
  1. Schiantarelli, Fabio & Perotti, Roberto & Ardagna, Silvia & Alesina, Alberto, 2002. "Fiscal Policy, Profits, and Investment," Scholarly Articles 4685103, Harvard University Department of Economics.
  2. Niskanen, William A, 1975. "Bureaucrats and Politicians," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 18(3), pages 617-43, December.
  3. Lorenzo Forni & Libero Monteforte & Luca Sessa, 2007. "The general equilibrium effects of fiscal policy: estimates for the euro area," Temi di discussione (Economic working papers) 652, Bank of Italy, Economic Research and International Relations Area.
  4. Ardagna, Silvia, 2007. "Fiscal Policy in Unionized Labor Markets," Scholarly Articles 2580048, Harvard University Department of Economics.
  5. António Afonso & Pedro Gomes, 2008. "Interactions between Private and Public Sector Wages," Working Papers Department of Economics 2008/55, ISEG - School of Economics and Management, Department of Economics, University of Lisbon.
  6. Pedro Gomes, 2011. "Fiscal policy and the labour market: the effects of public sector employment and wages," European Economy - Economic Papers 439, Directorate General Economic and Financial Affairs (DG ECFIN), European Commission.
  7. Domeij, David & Ljungqvist, Lars, 2006. "Wage Structure and Public Sector Employment: Sweden versus the United States 1970-2002," CEPR Discussion Papers 5921, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
  8. Monojit Chatterji & Karen Mumford, 2007. "The Public-Private Sector Wage Differential for Full-Time Male Employees in Britain: A Preliminary Analysis," Dundee Discussion Papers in Economics 201, Economic Studies, University of Dundee.
  9. Holmlund, Bertil, 1993. "Wage setting in private and public sectors in a model with endogenous government behavior," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 9(2), pages 149-162, May.
  10. Freeman, Richard B, 1988. "Contraction and Expansion: The Divergence of Private Sector and Public Sector Unionism in the United States," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 2(2), pages 63-88, Spring.
  11. Ardagna, Silvia, 2007. "Fiscal policy in unionized labor markets," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 31(5), pages 1498-1534, May.
  12. Javier J. Perez & Ana Lamo & Ludger Schuknecht, . "The Cyclicality of Consumption, Wages and Employment of the Public Sector in the Euro Area," EcoMod2007 23900062, EcoMod.
  13. Rodrik, Dani, 2000. "What Drives Public Employment in Developing Countries?," Review of Development Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 4(3), pages 229-43, October.
  14. Matschke, Xenia, 2003. " Are There Election Cycles in Wage Agreements? An Analysis of German Public Employees," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 114(1-2), pages 103-35, January.
  15. Blanchflower, David G, 1991. "Fear, Unemployment and Pay Flexibility," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 101(406), pages 483-96, May.
  16. Ardagna, Silvia, 2001. " Fiscal Policy Composition, Public Debt, and Economic Activity," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 109(3-4), pages 301-25, December.
  17. Courant, Paul N & Gramlich, Edward M & Rubinfeld, Daniel L, 1979. "Public Employee Market Power and the Level of Government Spending," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 69(5), pages 806-17, December.
  18. J. Lindquist & Roger Vilhelmsson, 2006. "Is the Swedish central government a wage leader?," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 38(14), pages 1617-1625.
  19. Lorenzo Forni & Raffaela Giordano, 2003. "Employment in the Public Sector," CESifo Working Paper Series 1085, CESifo Group Munich.
  20. Zenon Kontolemis G. & Dimitri G. Demekas, 1999. "Government Employment and Wages and Labor Market Performance," IMF Working Papers 99/55, International Monetary Fund.
  21. Allen, Steven G, 1987. "Can Union Labor Ever Cost Less?," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, MIT Press, vol. 102(2), pages 347-73, May.
  22. Ardagna, Silvia, 2001. "Fiscal Policy Composition, Public Debt, and Economic Activity," Scholarly Articles 2579823, Harvard University Department of Economics.
  23. Waters, Melissa & Moore, William J, 1990. " The Theory of Economic Regulation and Public Choice and the Determinants of Public Sector Bargaining Legislation," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 66(2), pages 161-75, August.
  24. Vincenzo Quadrini & Antonella Trigari, 2008. "Public Employment and the Business Cycle," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 109(4), pages 723-742, 03.
  25. Ehrenberg, Ronald G. & Goldstein, Gerald S., 1975. "A model of public sector wage determination," Journal of Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 2(3), pages 223-245, July.
  26. Lamo, Ana & Pérez, Javier J. & Schuknecht, Ludger, 2008. "Public and private sector wages: co-movement and causality," Working Paper Series 0963, European Central Bank.
  27. Canice Prendergast, 2007. "The Motivation and Bias of Bureaucrats," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 97(1), pages 180-196, March.
  28. Keith A. Bender, 2003. "Examining Equality between Public- and Private-Sector Wage Distributions," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 41(1), pages 62-79, January.
  29. Evi Pappa, 2009. "The effects of fiscal expansions: an international comparison," Working Papers 409, Barcelona Graduate School of Economics.
  30. Schuknecht, Ludger, 2000. " Fiscal Policy Cycles and Public Expenditure in Developing Countries," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 102(1-2), pages 115-30, January.
  31. Holmlund, Bertil, 1997. "Macroeconomic Implications of Cash Limits in the Public Sector," Economica, London School of Economics and Political Science, vol. 64(253), pages 49-62, February.
  32. Malley, Jim & Moutos, Thomas, 1996. " Does Government Employment "Crowd-Out" Private Employment? Evidence from Sweden," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 98(2), pages 289-302, June.
  33. repec:hrv:faseco:3353756 is not listed on IDEAS
  34. Richard B. Freeman, 1984. "Unionism Comes to the Public Sector," NBER Working Papers 1452, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
  35. Holm-Hadulla, Fédéric & Kamath, Kishore & Lamo, Ana & Pérez, Javier J. & Schuknecht, Ludger, 2010. "Public wages in the euro area - towards securing stability and competitiveness," Occasional Paper Series 112, European Central Bank.
  36. Gelb, A & Knight, John B & Sabot, R H, 1991. "Public Sector Employment, Rent Seeking and Economic Growth," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 101(408), pages 1186-99, September.
  37. Bender, Keith A, 1998. " The Central Government-Private Sector Wage Differential," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 12(2), pages 177-220, April.
  38. Borjas, George J, 1984. "Electoral Cycles and the Earnings of Federal Bureaucrats," Economic Inquiry, Western Economic Association International, vol. 22(4), pages 447-59, October.
  39. Chris Robinson, 1995. "Union Incidence in the Public and Private Sectors," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 28(4b), pages 1056-76, November.
Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

This item is not listed on Wikipedia, on a reading list or among the top items on IDEAS.

When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:ecb:ecbwps:20091099. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Official Publications)

If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.

If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.

If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

This information is provided to you by IDEAS at the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis using RePEc data.