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Impact des financements internationaux sur les inégalités des pays en développement

  • Lisa Chauvet

    ()

    (DIAL, IRD, Paris)

  • Sandrine Mesplé-Somps

    ()

    (DIAL, IRD, Paris)

We propose an econometric analysis of the distributive impact of trade flows, foreign direct investment (FDI), official aid and migrants’ remittances. Results suggest that FDI increases inequality, while remittances tend to reduce inequality. Trade and aid have a non-linear relationship with income distribution : trade favours the poorest in middle income countries while aid favours the middle class in democracies. Simulations suggest that, on average, the highly adverse impact on distribution of FDI is not compensated by the other three sources of financing. Moreover, African countries show a different pattern of distributional impact of trade and aid.________________________________ Nous proposons une analyse économétrique de l’impact sur la distribution des revenus de quatre sources de flux de financements internationaux : les échanges commerciaux, les investissements directs étrangers (IDE), l’aide publique et les transferts des migrants. Nos estimations suggèrent que les IDE augmentent les inégalités, à l’opposé des transferts des migrants. L’ouverture semble être favorable aux populations pauvres dans les pays à revenu intermédiaire, tandis que l’aide est favorable aux classes moyennes dans les pays démocratiques. Des simulations suggèrent qu’en moyenne le fort impact négatif des IDE sur les inégalités n’est pas totalement compensé par l’influence plutôt égalitaire des trois autres sources de financement. De plus, les pays africains semblent se distinguer en ce qui concerne l’impact distributif des flux commerciaux et d’aide.

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Paper provided by DIAL (Développement, Institutions et Mondialisation) in its series Working Papers with number DT/2006/18.

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Length: 16 pages
Date of creation: Dec 2006
Date of revision:
Handle: RePEc:dia:wpaper:dt200618
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