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El choque petrolero y sus implicaciones en la economía colombiana

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  • Jorge Toro

    ()

  • Aarón Garavito

    ()

  • David Camilo López

    ()

  • Enrique Montes

    ()

Abstract

La economía colombiana se ha visto impactada por la fuerte caída en la cotización internacional del petróleo, la cual se caracterizó por ser sorpresiva, acelerada y de magnitud considerable. Según los analistas, este choque podría ser persistente y extenderse por varios años. Sumado a lo anterior, el volumen de producción de hidrocarburos en el territorio nacional también podría caer, como resultado de la menor inversión en el sector ante los bajos precios del crudo. El presente documento hace un análisis descriptivo del choque petrolero reciente y de sus determinantes, así como de sus implicaciones para la economía colombiana. A la fecha, el desplome de los precios ha afectado los términos de intercambio del país y con ello el ingreso nacional, impactando las cuentas externas y la tasa de cambio, las finanzas públicas, la confianza de los mercados y el riesgo país. Lo anterior se ha traducido en una significativa desaceleración de la actividad económica. La respuesta de política económica ha sido coherente con un sólido marco institucional previamente establecido, que ha propiciado un ajuste ordenado de la economía a las nuevas circunstancias externas. Entre las características más importantes de dicho marco de política se destacan un régimen de inflación objetivo con flexibilidad cambiaria, una regla fiscal para el Gobierno Nacional y una política macro-prudencial que aboga por la estabilidad financiera. ****** The Colombian economy has been hit by the sharp fall of international oil prices, which was characterized for being unexpected, sudden and of considerable magnitude. According to analysts, this shock could be persistent and last for several years. On top of that, the volume of oil production in the country could also decrease due to a fall of investment in the sector in the context of lower oil prices. This document aims to provide a descriptive analysis of the recent oil shock, its determinants, and their implications for the Colombian economy. To date, falling oil prices have deteriorated the country's terms of trade and thus, its national income. Other key variables such as the current account, the exchange rate, the public finance, market’s confidence and the country risk premium have also been affected. As a result, a significant economic slowdown is taking place. The economic policy response has been coherent with a sound institutional framework previously established, which has encouraged an orderly adjustment to the new external circumstances. Among the key elements of such framework it is worth mentioning an inflation-targeting scheme with flexible exchange rate, a fiscal rule for the central Government, and a macro-prudential policy aiming at preserving financial stability.

Suggested Citation

  • Jorge Toro & Aarón Garavito & David Camilo López & Enrique Montes, 2015. "El choque petrolero y sus implicaciones en la economía colombiana," BORRADORES DE ECONOMIA 013829, BANCO DE LA REPÚBLICA.
  • Handle: RePEc:col:000094:013829
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    Cited by:

    1. Ligia Alba Melo-Becerra & Jorge Enrique Ramos-Forero & Ligia Marcela Parrado-Galvis & Hector Manuel Zarate-Solano, 2016. "Bonanzas y crisis de la actividad petrolera y su efecto sobre la economía colombiana," Borradores de Economia 961, Banco de la Republica de Colombia.
    2. Carlos Mauro Cárdenas Cardona & Juan Camilo Galvis Ciro, 2020. "La comunicación fiscal y sus efectos sobre los retornos de los títulos públicos: una aproximación empírica para el caso colombiano," Ensayos de Economía 018309, Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Medellín.
    3. Carlos David Ardila-Dueñas & Hernán Rincón-Castro, 2019. "¿Cómo y qué tanto impacta la deuda pública a las tasas de interés de mercado?," Borradores de Economia 1077, Banco de la Republica de Colombia.
    4. Camila Agudelo-Rivera & Nicolas Fajardo-Acosta & Camilo González-Sabogal & Enrique Montes-Uribe & Norberto Rodríguez-Niño, 2019. "Llegadas de turistas internacionales a Colombia durante 2001-2017: evolución, características y determinantes," Borradores de Economia 1064, Banco de la Republica de Colombia.
    5. Neville Francis & Sergio Restrepo-Angel, 2018. "Sectoral and aggregate response to oil price shocks in the Colombian economy: SVAR and Local Projections approach," Borradores de Economia 1055, Banco de la Republica de Colombia.
    6. Alonso Cifuentes, Julio César & Jaramillo Flechas, Luis Eduardo, 2019. "Descomponiendo el Efecto del Gasto Público en la Tasa de Cambio Real: Una Aproximación al Caso Colombiano || Decomposing the Effect of Public Spending on the Real Exchange Rate: An Approximation to th," Revista de Métodos Cuantitativos para la Economía y la Empresa = Journal of Quantitative Methods for Economics and Business Administration, Universidad Pablo de Olavide, Department of Quantitative Methods for Economics and Business Administration, vol. 27(1), pages 91-114, June.
    7. López, Andrea Ruíz & Krumm, Alexandra & Schattenhofer, Lukas & Burandt, Thorsten & Montoya, Felipe Corral & Oberländer, Nora & Oei, Pao-Yu, 2020. "Solar PV generation in Colombia - A qualitative and quantitative approach to analyze the potential of solar energy market," EconStor Open Access Articles, ZBW - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, pages 1266-1279.
    8. Adrian Martinez-Osorio & Deicy J. Cristiano-Botia & Celina Gaitan-Maldonado & Diego A. Sandoval-Herrera, 2019. "La Inversión Directa de Colombia en el Exterior (IDCE) y su renta: determinantes y dinámica reciente," Borradores de Economia 1068, Banco de la Republica de Colombia.

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    Keywords

    Petróleo; sector externo; ingresos fiscales; términos de intercambio.;

    JEL classification:

    • E20 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment - - - General (includes Measurement and Data)
    • Q30 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Nonrenewable Resources and Conservation - - - General
    • Q31 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Nonrenewable Resources and Conservation - - - Demand and Supply; Prices
    • Q34 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Nonrenewable Resources and Conservation - - - Natural Resources and Domestic and International Conflicts
    • Q43 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy - - - Energy and the Macroeconomy
    • H62 - Public Economics - - National Budget, Deficit, and Debt - - - Deficit; Surplus
    • H63 - Public Economics - - National Budget, Deficit, and Debt - - - Debt; Debt Management; Sovereign Debt

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