The Contribution of Restructuring and Reallocation to China's Productivity and Growth
China has exhibited very rapid measured aggregate productivity growth. At the same time, the structure of its markets and the structure of businesses have been changing at an equally rapid rate. In this paper, we measure the extent of restructuring and the reallocation of resources (including the reallocation of jobs) and then quantify the contribution of the reallocation and restructuring to the aggregate productivity growth of China's industrial structure. Our gross job flow analysis illustrates that reallocation and restructuring took many forms including shedding of jobs by government controlled enterprises and the increasing share of employment for FDI joint ventures. However, the analysis shows that it is not just shifts between firm types that are important but also reallocation and restructuring within firm types. For example, we find a high pace of job reallocation within SOEs and FDI joint ventures over and above what is needed to accommodate the net changes for these firm types (as high as 28 and 22 percent, respectively). We find evidence that the restructuring and reallocation contributed significantly to the high productivity growth. For example, our analysis shows that more than half of the labor productivity growth in 2001 is due to reallocation and restructuring. In that year, the industrial sector exhibited a labor productivity growth rate of around 22 percent which in the absence of reallocation and restructuring would have been around 10 percent.
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