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Pricing Discretely Monitored Barrier Options by a Markov Chain

Author

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  • Jin-Chuan Duan
  • Evan Dudley
  • Geneviève Gauthier
  • Jean-Guy Simonato

Abstract

We propose a Markov chain method for pricing discretely monitored barrier options in both the constant and time-varying volatility valuation frameworks. The method uses a time homogeneous Markov Chain to approximate the underlying asset price process. Our approach provides a natural framework for pricing discretely monitored barrier options because the discrete time step of the Markov chain can be easily matched with the monitoring frequency of the barrier. Furthermore the underlying asset price can also be partitioned to have the barrier suitably placed. Our method is fast, flexible and easy to implement as it reduces the pricing of American and European barrier options to simple matrix operations. Our method can efficiently handle the difficult cases where the barrier is close to the initial asset price. We study both knock-in and knock-out barrier options. Different types of barriers such as single, double and moving barriers are also analyzed. Cette étude propose l'utilisation de chaînes de Markov pour l'évaluation de prix d'options à barrière avec vérification à temps discrets dans des contextes de volatilité constante ou variable. La méthode utilise une chaîne de Markov homogène afin d'approcher le processus stochastique postulé pour l'actif sous-jacent. Cette méthode procure un environnement naturel pour évaluer ce type d'option puisque le pas discret de la chaîne de Markov peut être adapté à la longueur de temps entre les vérifications de la barrière. Le prix du sous-jacent peut aussi être discrétisé de façon optimale par rapport à la barrière. La méthode est rapide, flexible et simple à implanter puisque le calcul de prix d'options européennes et américaines est réalisé à l'aide de multiplications matricielles. De plus, la méthode proposée est précise pour les cas difficiles où la barrière est située près de la valeur du sous-jacent. Les options knock-in et knock-out sont examinées. Différents types de barrières telles les barrières doubles ainsi que les barrières mobiles sont aussi examinés.

Suggested Citation

  • Jin-Chuan Duan & Evan Dudley & Geneviève Gauthier & Jean-Guy Simonato, 1999. "Pricing Discretely Monitored Barrier Options by a Markov Chain," CIRANO Working Papers 99s-15, CIRANO.
  • Handle: RePEc:cir:cirwor:99s-15
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    File URL: http://www.cirano.qc.ca/files/publications/99s-15.pdf
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Boyle, Phelim & Broadie, Mark & Glasserman, Paul, 1997. "Monte Carlo methods for security pricing," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 21(8-9), pages 1267-1321, June.
    2. Duan, Jin-Chuan & Simonato, Jean-Guy, 2001. "American option pricing under GARCH by a Markov chain approximation," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 25(11), pages 1689-1718, November.
    3. Black, Fischer & Scholes, Myron S, 1973. "The Pricing of Options and Corporate Liabilities," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 81(3), pages 637-654, May-June.
    4. Mark Broadie & Paul Glasserman & Steven Kou, 1997. "A Continuity Correction for Discrete Barrier Options," Mathematical Finance, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 7(4), pages 325-349.
    5. K. Sandmann & Reimer, M., 1995. "A Discrete Time Approach for European and American Barrier Options," Discussion Paper Serie B 272, University of Bonn, Germany.
    6. Cox, John C. & Ross, Stephen A. & Rubinstein, Mark, 1979. "Option pricing: A simplified approach," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 7(3), pages 229-263, September.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Amirhossein Sobhani & Mariyan Milev, 2017. "A Numerical Method for Pricing Discrete Double Barrier Option by Legendre Multiwavelet," Papers 1703.09129, arXiv.org, revised Mar 2017.
    2. Sergio Ortobelli Lozza & Enrico Angelelli & Daniele Toninelli, 2011. "Set-Portfolio Selection with the Use of Market Stochastic Bounds," Emerging Markets Finance and Trade, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 47(0), pages 5-24, November.
    3. D. M. Pooley & P. A. Forsyth & K. R. Vetzal & R. B. Simpson, 2000. "Unstructured meshing for two asset barrier options," Applied Mathematical Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 7(1), pages 33-60.
    4. Alev{s} v{C}ern'y, 2016. "Discrete-Time Quadratic Hedging of Barrier Options in Exponential L\'{e}vy Model," Papers 1603.03747, arXiv.org.
    5. J. C. Ndogmo & D. B. Ntwiga, 2007. "High-order accurate implicit methods for the pricing of barrier options," Papers 0710.0069, arXiv.org.
    6. Sergio Ortobelli Lozza & Enrico Angelelli & Daniele Toninelli, 2011. "Set-Portfolio Selection with the Use of Market Stochastic Bounds," Emerging Markets Finance and Trade, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 47(0), pages 5-24, November.
    7. D’Amico, Guglielmo & Janssen, Jacques & Manca, Raimondo, 2009. "European and American options: The semi-Markov case," Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Elsevier, vol. 388(15), pages 3181-3194.
    8. Duan, Jin-Chuan & Zhang, Hua, 2001. "Pricing Hang Seng Index options around the Asian financial crisis - A GARCH approach," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 25(11), pages 1989-2014, November.
    9. Christian Skaug & Arvid Naess, 2007. "Fast and accurate pricing of discretely monitored barrier options by numerical path integration," Computational Economics, Springer;Society for Computational Economics, vol. 30(2), pages 143-151, September.
    10. Chun-Chou Wu, 2006. "The GARCH Option Pricing Model: A Modification of Lattice Approach," Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting, Springer, vol. 26(1), pages 55-66, February.
    11. Rahman Farnoosh & Hamidreza Rezazadeh & Amirhossein Sobhani & M. Hossein Beheshti, 2016. "A Numerical Method for Discrete Single Barrier Option Pricing with Time-Dependent Parameters," Computational Economics, Springer;Society for Computational Economics, vol. 48(1), pages 131-145, June.
    12. Fusai, Gianluca & Recchioni, Maria Cristina, 2007. "Analysis of quadrature methods for pricing discrete barrier options," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 31(3), pages 826-860, March.

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