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Science: why the gender gap?

Author

Listed:
  • Thomas Breda
  • Son Thierry Ly

Abstract

Stereotypes, role models played by teachers and social norms influence girls' academic self-concept and push girls to choose humanities rather than science. Do recruiters reinforce this strong selection by discriminating more against girls in more scientific subjects? Using the entrance exam of a French higher education institution (the Ecole Normale Supérieure) as a natural experiment, we show the opposite: discrimination goes in favor of females in more male-connoted subjects (e.g. math, philosophy) and in favor of males in more female-connoted subjects (e.g. literature, biology), inducing a rebalancing of sex ratios between students recruited for a research career in science and humanities majors. We identify discrimination by systematic differences in students' scores between oral tests (non-blind toward gender) and anonymous written tests (blind toward gender). By making comparisons of these oral/written scores differences between different subjects for a given student, we are able to control both for a student's ability in each subject and for her overall ability at oral exams. The mechanisms likely to drive this positive discrimination toward the minority gender are also discussed.

Suggested Citation

  • Thomas Breda & Son Thierry Ly, 2012. "Science: why the gender gap?," CentrePiece - The Magazine for Economic Performance 386, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
  • Handle: RePEc:cep:cepcnp:386
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    File URL: http://cep.lse.ac.uk/pubs/download/cp386.pdf
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    More about this item

    Keywords

    discrimination; gender stereotypes; natural experiment; sex and science;

    JEL classification:

    • I23 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Higher Education; Research Institutions
    • J16 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demographic Economics - - - Economics of Gender; Non-labor Discrimination

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