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Complex Networks and Symmetry II: Reciprocity and Evolution of World Trade


  • Franco Ruzzenenti
  • Diego Garlaschelli
  • Riccardo Basosi


We exploit the symmetry concepts developed in the companion review of this article to introduce a stochastic version of link reversal symmetry, which leads to an improved understanding of the reciprocity of directed networks. We apply our formalism to the international trade network and show that a strong embedding in economic space determines particular symmetries of the network, while the observed evolution of reciprocity is consistent with a symmetry breaking taking place in production space. Our results show that networks can be strongly affected by symmetry-breaking phenomena occurring in embedding spaces, and that stochastic network symmetries can successfully suggest, or rule out, possible underlying mechanisms.

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  • Franco Ruzzenenti & Diego Garlaschelli & Riccardo Basosi, 2010. "Complex Networks and Symmetry II: Reciprocity and Evolution of World Trade," Papers 1009.4489,
  • Handle: RePEc:arx:papers:1009.4489

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Schiegl, M., 2002. "On the Safety Loading for Chain Ladder Estimates: a Monte Carlo Simulation Study," ASTIN Bulletin: The Journal of the International Actuarial Association, Cambridge University Press, vol. 32(01), pages 107-128, May.
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    1. Picciolo, Francesco & Papandreou, Andreas & Hubacek, Klaus & Ruzzenenti, Franco, 2017. "How crude oil prices shape the global division of labor," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 189(C), pages 753-761.
    2. repec:eee:phsmap:v:482:y:2017:i:c:p:345-356 is not listed on IDEAS

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