A Consistent Picture of Applied Protection Across the World
In order to provide with a consistent assessment of protection across the world in 2001, the MAcMap-HS6 database includes ad valorem equivalent measure of tariff duties and tariff rate quotas for 163 countries and 208 partners, at the six-digit level of the Harmonized System (5,111 products), and accounting for all preferential agreements. We first describe the methodology used to compute and aggregate ad valorem-equivalent applied tariff duties, well suited for analytical purposes. Special emphasis is put in minimizing the endogeneity bias in the aggregation procedure, and in acknowledging structural differences in export specialization. We then overview applied protection across the world, in terms of average as well as distribution. Protection appears strongly uneven across countries and products. Least developed countries are in average the most protected. While developed countries exhibit the lowest average tariff level, their protection appears extremely uneven across both partners and products.