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Mercado Laboral y Reformas en Bolivia

Author

Listed:
  • Beatriz Muriel

    () (Institute for Advanced Development Studies)

  • Luis Carlos Jemio

    () (Institute for Advanced Development Studies)

Abstract

El estudio presenta un panorama de las reformas sociales y económicas implementadas en Bolivia desde 1985, en su relación e incidencia con el funcionamiento del mercado de trabajo. Inicialmente, se destaca la efectividad de las llamadas Reformas Estructurales, aplicadas durante 1985-2005, en la generación de la estabilidad macroeconómica; en la captación de inversión extranjera directa, en la apertura de mercados y en la disminución de la pobreza (medida por Necesidades Básicas Insatisfechas). Sin embargo, se observa que las medidas destinadas a crear empleos decentes fueron escasas y los rubros favorecidos por las reformas crearon pocas fuentes de trabajo. El nuevo gobierno, que ascendió al poder en 2006, aumentó los programas sociales y revirtió varias reformas implementadas durante 1985-2005. No obstante, las políticas públicas se concentraron en los mismos rubros que las anteriores reformas, descuidando los problemas en torno a la generación de buenos empleos en Bolivia. En este escenario, la fuerza laboral urbana continuó con su propia dinámica de expansión, sobrepasando en muchos casos la demanda laboral. Como resultado, muchos trabajadores no-calificados generaron sus propios empleos, con bajos ingresos y productividad. En contraste, los trabajadores calificados fueron favorecidos por las reformas y los sectores beneficiados por éstas; lo que condujo a un aumento en el premio salarial por calificación en el tiempo. Por otro lado, la fuerza laboral rural siguió empleada en su mayoría en el sector agropecuario de subsistencia; no obstante, la migración campo-ciudad llevó a la disminución de la población ocupada en estas regiones y, desde aquí, promovió algunas mejoras en la productividad e ingresos. El estudio concluye señalando que las reformas no han generado mejores empleos, siendo fundamental establecer políticas que dinamicen la demanda laboral, mejorando el clima de negocios y propiciando mayores inversiones que busquen expandir principalmente el sector industrial, ya que es intensivo en mano de obra no-calificada, puede beneficiarse del mercado mundial y del desarrollo tecnológico, y está concentra en las áreas urbanas.

Suggested Citation

  • Beatriz Muriel & Luis Carlos Jemio, 2010. "Mercado Laboral y Reformas en Bolivia," Development Research Working Paper Series 07/2010, Institute for Advanced Development Studies.
  • Handle: RePEc:adv:wpaper:201007
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    Cited by:

    1. Cruces Guillermo & Fields Gary S. & Jaume David & Viollaz Mariana, 2015. "The growth-employment-poverty nexus in Latin America in the 2000s: Bolivia country study," WIDER Working Paper Series 070, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    2. Beatriz Muriel & Carlos Gustavo Machicado, 2012. "Employment and Labor Regulation: Evidence from Manufacturing Firms in Bolivia, 1988-2007," Development Research Working Paper Series 07/2012, Institute for Advanced Development Studies.
    3. Fernando Rios-Avila & Barry T. Hirsch, 2014. "Unions, Wage Gaps, and Wage Dispersion: New Evidence from the Americas," Industrial Relations: A Journal of Economy and Society, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 53(1), pages 1-27, January.
    4. Lykke Andersen & Ugur Bilge & Ben Groom & David Gutierrez & Evan Killick & Juan Carlos Ledezma & Charles Palmer & Diana Weinhold, 2014. "Modelling land use, deforestation, and policy analysis: A hybrid optimization-ABM heterogeneous agent model with application to the Bolivian Amazon," GRI Working Papers 164, Grantham Research Institute on Climate Change and the Environment.
    5. Beatriz Muriel Hernández, 2016. "An Analysis of Firm Characteristics as Earnings Determinants: The Urban Bolivia Case," Development Research Working Paper Series 04/2016, Institute for Advanced Development Studies.
    6. Beatriz Muriel & Horacio Vera, 2015. "The Effects of Economic Growth on Earnings in Bolivia," Development Research Working Paper Series 08/2015, Institute for Advanced Development Studies.
    7. Machicado Carlos Gustavo & Birbuet Juan Cristobal, 2012. "Misallocation and Manufacturing TFP in Bolivia during the Market Liberalization Period," The B.E. Journal of Macroeconomics, De Gruyter, vol. 12(1), pages 1-45, July.
    8. Andersen, Lykke E. & Groom, Ben & Killick, Evan & Ledezma, Juan Carlos & Palmer, Charles & Weinhold, Diana, 2017. "Modelling Land Use, Deforestation, and Policy: A Hybrid Optimisation-Heterogeneous Agent Model with Application to the Bolivian Amazon," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 135(C), pages 76-90.
    9. Gustavo Canavire-Bacarreza & Fernando Rios-Avila, 2015. "On the Determinants of Changes in Wage Inequality in Bolivia," DOCUMENTOS DE TRABAJO CIEF 012662, UNIVERSIDAD EAFIT.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Bolivia; ingresos laborales; salarios; desigualdad; políticas sociales;

    JEL classification:

    • E20 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Consumption, Saving, Production, Employment, and Investment - - - General (includes Measurement and Data)
    • E60 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Macroeconomic Policy, Macroeconomic Aspects of Public Finance, and General Outlook - - - General
    • J08 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - General - - - Labor Economics Policies
    • J20 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Demand and Supply of Labor - - - General
    • J43 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Particular Labor Markets - - - Agricultural Labor Markets
    • J83 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Labor Standards - - - Workers' Rights
    • R23 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Household Analysis - - - Regional Migration; Regional Labor Markets; Population

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