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Probe Revisited: A Report on Elementary Education in India


  • De, Anuradha
  • Khera, Reetika
  • Samson, Meera
  • Shiva Kumar, A. K.


Coming a decade after the first Public Report on Basic Education (PROBE), this report is written from the perspective of those who despite yearning for good quality education find themselves excluded from learning and acquiring decent education. The data is based on the findings of a survey conducted in 2006, along the lines of an earlier survey conducted by PROBE in 1996 - it 'revisited' the same sample villages covering schools and households, with some modifications. Apart from basic and primary education, this report looks at upper-primary schooling in Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, and Rajasthan, and in Himachal Pradesh. It highlights major progress in areas such as schooling facilities and enrolment rates. At the same time, it finds that fundamental problems remain, such as low classroom activity, poor quality of education, and discrimination due to social disparities in schooling opportunities. It is an indispensible tool for educationists, planners and policymakers, funding agencies, NGOs, and researchers across the social sciences and all those concerned with elementary education in India.

Suggested Citation

  • De, Anuradha & Khera, Reetika & Samson, Meera & Shiva Kumar, A. K., 2011. "Probe Revisited: A Report on Elementary Education in India," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780198071570.
  • Handle: RePEc:oxp:obooks:9780198071570

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    Cited by:

    1. Singal, Nidhi, 2016. "Schooling children with disabilities: Parental perceptions and experiences," International Journal of Educational Development, Elsevier, vol. 50(C), pages 33-40.
    2. Pinaki Das & Bibek Paria & Shama Firdaush, 2021. "Juxtaposing Consumption Poverty and Multidimensional Poverty: A Study in Indian Context," Social Indicators Research: An International and Interdisciplinary Journal for Quality-of-Life Measurement, Springer, vol. 153(2), pages 469-501, January.
    3. Naveen Kumar, 2019. "Public Schools Can Improve Student Outcomes: Evidence from a Natural Experiment in India," 2019 Papers pku634, Job Market Papers.
    4. Sonali Jain-Chandra & Tidiane Kinda & Kalpana Kochhar & Shi Piao & Johanna Schauer, 2019. "Sharing the Growth Dividend: Analysis of Inequality in Asia," Journal of Banking and Financial Economics, University of Warsaw, Faculty of Management, vol. 2(12), pages 5-28, September.
    5. Arundhuti Gupta & M.V. Rajeev Gowda, 2012. "Mentoring India’s Youth," IIM Kozhikode Society & Management Review, , vol. 1(2), pages 75-84, July.
    6. Pauline Dixon, 2013. "International Aid and Private Schools for the Poor," Books, Edward Elgar Publishing, number 15122, June.
    7. Nandi, Arijit & Agarwal, Parul & Chandrashekar, Anoushaka & Harper, Sam, 2020. "Access to affordable daycare and women’s economic opportunities: evidence from a cluster randomised intervention in India," OSF Preprints du3xg, Center for Open Science.
    8. Dixon, Pauline & Egalite, Anna J. & Humble, Steve & Wolf, Patrick J., 2019. "Experimental results from a four-year targeted education voucher program in the slums of Delhi, India," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 124(C), pages 1-1.
    9. Sudha Narayanan, 2013. "Choosing private schools: Examining primary school enrollment decisions in rural North India," Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai Working Papers 2013-025, Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai, India.
    10. Bose, Sukanya & Noopur, A. & Nayudu, Sri Hari, 2022. "Intergovernmental Fiscal transfers and Expenditure on Education in India: State level analysis, 2005 to 2020," Working Papers 22/377, National Institute of Public Finance and Policy.

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