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Cost data for individual patients included in clinical studies: no amount of statistical analysis can compensate for inadequate costing methods


  • Nicholas Graves
  • Damian Walker
  • Rosalind Raine
  • Andrew Hutchings
  • Jennifer A. Roberts


This work examines the quality of the cost methods used to derive patient level costs in 45 economic evaluations conducted alongside randomised controlled trials. The perspective of the cost analysis, the methods used to determine quantities and values of resources and how the cost data were reported are examined. The reported costing methods were found to be of poor quality, highlighting the need for greater rigour. Researchers to date appear more concerned with whether cost data have been subjected to the appropriate statistical analysis. For the results of clinical studies to be valid both cost methods and the methods used for the statistical analysis of cost data should be of a high quality. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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  • Nicholas Graves & Damian Walker & Rosalind Raine & Andrew Hutchings & Jennifer A. Roberts, 2002. "Cost data for individual patients included in clinical studies: no amount of statistical analysis can compensate for inadequate costing methods," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 11(8), pages 735-739, December.
  • Handle: RePEc:wly:hlthec:v:11:y:2002:i:8:p:735-739
    DOI: 10.1002/hec.683

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    1. M. Carreras & M. García-Goñi & P. Ibern & J. Coderch & L. Vall-Llosera & J. Inoriza, 2011. "Estimates of patient costs related with population morbidity: can indirect costs affect the results?," The European Journal of Health Economics, Springer;Deutsche Gesellschaft für Gesundheitsökonomie (DGGÖ), vol. 12(4), pages 289-295, August.
    2. Richard Grieve & John Cairns & Simon G. Thompson, 2010. "Improving costing methods in multicentre economic evaluation: the use of multiple imputation for unit costs," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 19(8), pages 939-954, August.
    3. Manuel Gomes & Richard Grieve & Richard Nixon & W. J. Edmunds, 2012. "Statistical Methods for Cost-Effectiveness Analyses That Use Data from Cluster Randomized Trials," Medical Decision Making, , vol. 32(1), pages 209-220, January.
    4. Alvin Kuo Jing Teo & Kiesha Prem & Yi Wang & Tripti Pande & Marina Smelyanskaya & Lisanne Gerstel & Monyrath Chry & Sovannary Tuot & Siyan Yi, 2021. "Economic Evaluation of Community Tuberculosis Active Case-Finding Approaches in Cambodia: A Quasi-Experimental Study," IJERPH, MDPI, vol. 18(23), pages 1-16, December.
    5. Gerald Richardson & Andrea Manca, 2004. "Calculation of quality adjusted life years in the published literature: a review of methodology and transparency," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 13(12), pages 1203-1210, December.
    6. Hana M. Broulíková & Petr Winkler & Marek Páv & Lucie Kondrátová, 2020. "Costs of Mental Health Services in Czechia: Facilitating an Evidence-Based Reform of Psychiatric Care," Applied Health Economics and Health Policy, Springer, vol. 18(2), pages 287-298, April.
    7. Marion Haas & Marian Shanahan & Rob Anderson, 2007. "Assessing the costs of organised health programs: The case of the National Cervical Screening Program," Working Papers 2007/2, CHERE, University of Technology, Sydney.
    8. Alfredo Palacios & Carlos Rojas-Roque & Lucas González & Ariel Bardach & Agustín Ciapponi & Claudia Peckaitis & Andres Pichon-Riviere & Federico Augustovski, 2021. "Direct Medical Costs, Productivity Loss Costs and Out-Of-Pocket Expenditures in Women with Breast Cancer in Latin America and the Caribbean: A Systematic Review," PharmacoEconomics, Springer, vol. 39(5), pages 485-502, May.
    9. Shelley Potter & Charlotte Davies & Gareth Davies & Caoimhe Rice & William Hollingworth, 2020. "The use of micro-costing in economic analyses of surgical interventions: a systematic review," Health Economics Review, Springer, vol. 10(1), pages 1-11, December.
    10. Radhakrishnan, Muralikrishnan & van Gool, Kees & Hall, Jane & Delatycki, Martin & Massie, John, 2008. "Economic evaluation of cystic fibrosis screening: A review of the literature," Health Policy, Elsevier, vol. 85(2), pages 133-147, February.
    11. Andrea Gabrio & Alexina J. Mason & Gianluca Baio, 2017. "Handling Missing Data in Within-Trial Cost-Effectiveness Analysis: A Review with Future Recommendations," PharmacoEconomics - Open, Springer, vol. 1(2), pages 79-97, June.
    12. Marian Shanahan & Emily Lancsar & Marion Haas & Bronwyn Lind & Don Weatherburn & Shuling Chen, 2004. "Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the New South Wales Adult Drug Court Program," Evaluation Review, , vol. 28(1), pages 3-27, February.
    13. Adam Martin & Alex Jones & Miranda Mugford & Ian Shemilt & Ruth Hancock & Raphael Wittenberg, 2012. "Methods Used To Identify And Measure Resource Use In Economic Evaluations: A Systematic Review Of Questionnaires For Older People," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 21(8), pages 1017-1022, August.
    14. Ernst, Chris & Rouse, Paul, 2016. "Complexity, Tertiariness and Healthcare: Unresolved Issues of Reimbursement and Incentives," Die Unternehmung - Swiss Journal of Business Research and Practice, Nomos Verlagsgesellschaft mbH & Co. KG, vol. 70(3), pages 227-247.

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