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The Medium-Run Effects of Florida’s Test-Based Promotion Policy


  • Marcus A. Winters

    () (University of Colorado–Colorado Springs)

  • Jay P. Greene

    () (University of Arkansas)


We use a regression discontinuity strategy to produce causal estimates for the effect of remediation under Florida’s test-based promotion policy on multiple outcomes for up to five years after the intervention. Students subjected to the policy were retained in the third grade, were required to be assigned to a high-quality teacher during the retained year, and were required to attend summer school. Exposure to these interventions has a statistically significant and substantial positive effect on student achievement in math, reading, and science in the years immediately following the treatment. But the effect of the treatment dissipates over time. Nonetheless, we find that the effect of remediation under the policy on academic achievement is statistically significant and of a meaningful magnitude several years after the student is exposed to the intervention. Though we cannot completely separate the differential effects of the treatments attached to the policy, we provide some evidence that assignment to a higher-quality teacher in the retained year is not the primary driver of the policy’s effect. © 2012 Association for Education Finance and Policy

Suggested Citation

  • Marcus A. Winters & Jay P. Greene, 2012. "The Medium-Run Effects of Florida’s Test-Based Promotion Policy," Education Finance and Policy, MIT Press, vol. 7(3), pages 305-330, July.
  • Handle: RePEc:tpr:edfpol:v:7:y:2012:i:3:p:305-330

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    Cited by:

    1. repec:tpr:edfpol:v:12:y:2017:i:3:p:312-341 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. Figlio, D. & Karbownik, K. & Salvanes, K.G., 2016. "Education Research and Administrative Data," Handbook of the Economics of Education, Elsevier.
    3. repec:eee:pubeco:v:152:y:2017:i:c:p:154-169 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. Umut Ozek, 2015. "Hold Back To Move Forward? Early Grade Retention And Student Misbehavior," Education Finance and Policy, MIT Press, vol. 10(3), pages 350-377, July.
    5. Schwerdt, Guido & West, Martin R. & Winters, Marcus A., 2017. "The effects of test-based retention on student outcomes over time: Regression discontinuity evidence from Florida," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 152(C), pages 154-169.

    More about this item


    student promotion; grade retention; standardized testing; remediation;

    JEL classification:

    • I21 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Education - - - Analysis of Education


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