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Understanding Households’ Choice of Cooking Fuels: Evidence from Urban Households in Pakistan


  • Dil Bahadur Rahut

    (International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT), El Batan, Mexico.)

  • Akhter Ali

    (CIMMYT, Islamabad, Pakistan.)

  • Khondoker Abdul Mottaleb

    (CIMMYT, El Batan, Mexico.)

  • Jeetendra Prakash Aryal

    (CIMMYT, El Batan, Mexico.)


Households in developing countries predominantly rely on solid fuel for cooking, which is injurious to both the environment and human health. The provision of clean energy for cooking, therefore, is essential for safeguarding the environment and human health, primarily of women and children in developing countries. Using the 2014–2015 Pakistan Social and Living Standards Measurement Survey and robust econometric methods, this study analyzes different types of energy used for cooking among urban households in Pakistan. The study shows that although urban households in Pakistan mostly use gas for cooking, the use of solid fuels, particularly among poor and relatively less educated households, is pervasive. The econometric findings confirm that households with a higher level of education and wealthy families mainly use clean energy, such as gas, and are less likely to use dirty solid fuels, such as cake dung and crop residue for cooking. Considering the expansion of middle-class households and anticipating their demand for clean fuel for cooking, this study suggests ensuring an adequate supply of clean sources of energy to meet future demand as well as augmenting the affordability and awareness among households who are still dependent on solid fuels.

Suggested Citation

  • Dil Bahadur Rahut & Akhter Ali & Khondoker Abdul Mottaleb & Jeetendra Prakash Aryal, 2020. "Understanding Households’ Choice of Cooking Fuels: Evidence from Urban Households in Pakistan," Asian Development Review, MIT Press, vol. 37(1), pages 185-212, March.
  • Handle: RePEc:tpr:adbadr:v:37:y:2020:i:1:p:185-212

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    Cited by:

    1. Martey, Edward & Etwire, Prince M. & Atinga, David & Yevu, Mawuli, 2021. "Household energy choice for cooking among the time and consumption poor in Ghana," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 226(C).

    More about this item


    choice; cooking fuels; education; gas; Pakistan; solid fuels; wealth;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • D10 - Microeconomics - - Household Behavior - - - General
    • I31 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty - - - General Welfare, Well-Being
    • Q40 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Energy - - - General


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