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The Green Area Ratio: an urban site sustainability metric


  • Melissa Keeley


The Green Area Ratio (GAR) is an urban site sustainability metric which has been used in Berlin, Germany since 1997 to enhance the urban environment by requiring green infrastructure enhancements on private properties. Following an overview of the principles of the GAR instrument, this paper outlines metric development and implementation procedures in Berlin and then analyses how instrument features might affect its potential environmental, social and economic impacts. Despite identified policy deficits and the lack of adequate outcome monitoring in Berlin, the GAR instrument resonates with the environmental planning needs of many urban communities, including its compatibility with dense urbanism, utilisation of green infrastructure techniques, and an aim toward comprehensive environmental planning.

Suggested Citation

  • Melissa Keeley, 2011. "The Green Area Ratio: an urban site sustainability metric," Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 54(7), pages 937-958, November.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:jenpmg:v:54:y:2011:i:7:p:937-958
    DOI: 10.1080/09640568.2010.547681

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    Cited by:

    1. V. M. Jayasooriya & A. W. M. Ng & S. Muthukumaran & B. J. C. Perera, 2016. "Optimal Sizing of Green Infrastructure Treatment Trains for Stormwater Management," Water Resources Management: An International Journal, Published for the European Water Resources Association (EWRA), Springer;European Water Resources Association (EWRA), vol. 30(14), pages 5407-5420, November.
    2. Ulrich B. Morawetz & Dieter Mayr & Doris Damyanovic, 2016. "Ökonomische Effekte grüner Infrastruktur als Teil eines Grünflächenfaktors. Ein Leitfaden," Working Papers 662016, Institute for Sustainable Economic Development, Department of Economics and Social Sciences, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna.
    3. Amy Hillier & Bing Han & Theodore S. Eisenman & Kelly R. Evenson & Thomas L. McKenzie & Deborah A. Cohen, 2016. "Using Systematic Observations to Understand Conditions that Promote Interracial Experiences in Neighbourhood Parks," Urban Planning, Cogitatio Press, vol. 1(4), pages 51-64.

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