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Military expenditure and economic growth: peru 1970-1996

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  • Thilo Klein

Abstract

The present study examines the effects of military expenditure on growth in Peru in the period from 1970 to 1996. By using a Deger-type Simultaneous Equations Model it is possible to break up the net effect into supply- and demand-side influences. The former consist of positive externalities of defence activities on the other sectors of the economy, while the latter can be described as crowding-out of civilian investment. Estimations find the supply-side effects to be insignificantly different from zero, while the crowding-out effect of defence spending is significant and substantial. It is thereby established that defence expenditure has a negative overall effect on economic growth in Peru. Although several caveats - including specification problems of the Deger model, the quality of the data used, a relatively small sample and the presence of autocorrelation in the estimations - must be considered, these results turn out to be quite robust with respect to estimation methods (3SLS, 2SLS, OLS) and slight modifications to the model. They are also consistent with previous empirical findings from other countries and cross sectional studies.

Suggested Citation

  • Thilo Klein, 2004. "Military expenditure and economic growth: peru 1970-1996," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 15(3), pages 275-288.
  • Handle: RePEc:taf:defpea:v:15:y:2004:i:3:p:275-288
    DOI: 10.1080/102426903200035101
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Deger, Saadet & Sen, Somnath, 1983. "Military expenditure, spin-off and economic development," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 13(1-2), pages 67-83.
    2. Paul Dunne & Eftychia Nikolaidou & Andre Roux, 2000. "Defence spending and economic growth in South Africa: A supply and demand model," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 11(4), pages 573-585.
    3. Peter Kennedy, 2003. "A Guide to Econometrics, 5th Edition," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 5, volume 1, number 026261183x, January.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Ageli, Mohammed Moosa & Zaidan, Shatha Mousa, 2012. "Consequential Effects of Defence Expenditure on Economic Growth of Saudi Arabia: 1970-2012," MPRA Paper 46590, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    2. Ucal, Meltem & Karabulut, Gokhan & Bilgin, Mehmet Huseyin, 2009. "Military Expenditures and Inequality: Empirical Evidence from Israel," MPRA Paper 48643, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    3. Shahbaz, Muhammad & Leitão, Nuno Carlos & Uddin, Gazi Salah & Arouri, Mohamed & Teulon, Frédéric, 2013. "Should Portuguese economy invest in defense spending? A revisit," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 35(C), pages 805-815.
    4. Abdul Jalil & Hafiz Khuram Nadeem Abbasi & Nazia Bibi, 2016. "Military expenditures and economic growth: allowing structural breaks in time series analysis in the case of India and Pakistan," Quality & Quantity: International Journal of Methodology, Springer, vol. 50(4), pages 1487-1505, July.
    5. Na Hou & Bo Chen, 2013. "Military Expenditure And Economic Growth In Developing Countries: Evidence From System Gmm Estimates," Defence and Peace Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 24(3), pages 183-193, June.
    6. repec:ipg:wpaper:2014-380 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. Fiaz Hussain & Shahzad Hussain & Naila Erum, 2015. "Are Defense Expenditures Pro Poor or Anti Poor in Pakistan? An Empirical Investigation," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 54(4), pages 875-894.
    8. Chen, Pei-Fen & Lee, Chien-Chiang & Chiu, Yi-Bin, 2014. "The nexus between defense expenditure and economic growth: New global evidence," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 36(C), pages 474-483.

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