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Advanced workforce management for effective customer services


  • Jun Kim
  • Sung Ha



Because almost 60–80% of the total costs for operating a contact centre involve wage and benefit expenses for personnel, determining the optimal number of agents available is of great importance in call centre management. In modern call centres, working hours are divided into planning intervals with identical lengths. Each planning interval is typically assumed to be a homogeneous Poisson process in a steady state, and simple queuing models, such as Erlang-C (M/M/c), are often applied to determine the optimal staffing levels of the planning intervals. However, since the actual length of the planning interval in practice is relatively short, the basic assumption of staffing analysis could be violated. In this paper, we numerically analyze an M/M/c+M call centre’s behavior in a transient state. As a result, we can determine appropriate staffing levels of a call centre with short planning intervals which do not assume to be in a steady state. Copyright Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Suggested Citation

  • Jun Kim & Sung Ha, 2012. "Advanced workforce management for effective customer services," Quality & Quantity: International Journal of Methodology, Springer, vol. 46(6), pages 1715-1726, October.
  • Handle: RePEc:spr:qualqt:v:46:y:2012:i:6:p:1715-1726
    DOI: 10.1007/s11135-011-9554-6

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Xia Pan & Jeffrey Jarrett, 2004. "Applying State Space to SPC: Monitoring Multivariate Time Series," Journal of Applied Statistics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 31(4), pages 397-418.
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    Cited by:

    1. Defraeye, Mieke & Van Nieuwenhuyse, Inneke, 2016. "Staffing and scheduling under nonstationary demand for service: A literature review," Omega, Elsevier, vol. 58(C), pages 4-25.
    2. Eltigani, Dalia & Masri, Syafrudin, 2015. "Challenges of integrating renewable energy sources to smart grids: A review," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 52(C), pages 770-780.
    3. Schwarz, Justus Arne & Selinka, Gregor & Stolletz, Raik, 2016. "Performance analysis of time-dependent queueing systems: Survey and classification," Omega, Elsevier, vol. 63(C), pages 170-189.


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