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articles: Calorie intake and income elasticities in EU countries: A convergence analysis using cointegration


  • José M. Gil

    () (Unidad de Economía Agraria, Servicio de Investigación Agro-alimentaria , Montañana, 176. Apdo. 727, 50080-Zaragoza)

  • Azucena Gracia

    () (Unidad de Economía Agraria, Servicio de Investigación Agro-alimentaria , Montañana, 176. Apdo. 727, 50080-Zaragoza)

  • Ana M. Angulo

    (Departamento de Análisis Económico, Universidad de Zaragoza)


We want to determine here whether the trans-European consumer reacts to changes in total food consumption or changes in income equalise in the long run. Do total calorie intake elasticities and income elasticities converge in the long-run? A demand system is estimated for each European country. The proportional caloric intakes of the various food groups are analyzed as endogenous variables, and two exogenous variables (total calorie intake and income), are both defined in log terms. A s all variables are I(1) and non-cointegrated, demand systems are specified in first differences. Finally, we use Johansen and Juselius's multivariate cointegration tests to test for the convergence of calorie intake and income elasticities. Empirical results indicate a very limited convergence between certain products and countries considered, suggesting that country idiosyncrasies still play an important role in consumer behavior.

Suggested Citation

  • José M. Gil & Azucena Gracia & Ana M. Angulo, 2001. "articles: Calorie intake and income elasticities in EU countries: A convergence analysis using cointegration," Papers in Regional Science, Springer;Regional Science Association International, vol. 80(2), pages 165-187.
  • Handle: RePEc:spr:presci:v:80:y:2001:i:2:p:165-187
    Note: Received: 30 March 1998

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    Cited by:

    1. Angulo, Ana Maria & Mtimet, Nadhem & Gil, Jose Maria, 2008. "Análisis de la demanda de alimentos en España considerando el impacto de la dieta sobre la salud," Economia Agraria y Recursos Naturales, Spanish Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 8(2).
    2. Fousekis, Panos, 2009. "International Consumption Patterns for Proteins and Fats: Intra-distributional Mobility and the Role of Income Elasticity," Agricultural Economics Review, Greek Association of Agricultural Economists, vol. 0(Issue 1), pages 1-16.
    3. Ogundari, Kolawole, 2011. "Estimating Demand for Nutrients in Nigeria: A Vector Error Correction Model," MPRA Paper 28930, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    4. Kolawole Ogundari & Shoichi Ito & Victor O Okoruwa, 2016. "Estimating nutrition-income elasticities in sub-Saharan Africa: implications on health," Journal of Economic Studies, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 43(1), pages 59-69, January.
    5. Ferda HALICIOGLU, 2012. "The Demand for Calories in Turkey," Iktisat Isletme ve Finans, Bilgesel Yayincilik, vol. 27(316), pages 93-108.
    6. Edward Nissan & Farhang Niroomand, 2015. "Gender and Spatial Educational Attainment Gaps in Turkey," Asian Economic and Financial Review, Asian Economic and Social Society, vol. 5(1), pages 102-109, January.

    More about this item


    European food demand; calorie intake; cointegration; convergence;

    JEL classification:

    • D12 - Microeconomics - - Household Behavior - - - Consumer Economics: Empirical Analysis
    • R11 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - General Regional Economics - - - Regional Economic Activity: Growth, Development, Environmental Issues, and Changes


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