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Evaluation of the combined risk of sea level rise, land subsidence, and storm surges on the coastal areas of Shanghai, China

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  • Jun Wang

    ()

  • Wei Gao

    ()

  • Shiyuan Xu

    ()

  • Lizhong Yu

    ()

Abstract

Shanghai is a low-lying city (3–4 m elevation) surrounded on three sides by the East China Sea, the Yangtze River Estuary, and Hangzhou Bay. With a history of rapid changes in sea level and land subsidence, Shanghai is often plagued by extreme typhoon storm surges. The interaction of sea level rise, land subsidence, and storm surges may lead to more complex, variable, and abrupt disasters. In this paper, we used MIKE 21 models to simulate the combined effect of this disaster chain in Shanghai. Projections indicate that the sea level will rise 86.6 mm, 185.6 mm, and 433.1 mm by 2030, 2050, and 2100, respectively. Anthropogenic subsidence is a serious problem. The maximum annual subsidence rate is 24.12 mm/year. By 2100, half of Shanghai is projected to be flooded, and 46 % of the seawalls and levees are projected to be overtopped. The risk of flooding is closely related to the impact of land subsidence on the height of existing seawalls and levees. Land subsidence increases the need for flood control measures in Shanghai. Copyright Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Suggested Citation

  • Jun Wang & Wei Gao & Shiyuan Xu & Lizhong Yu, 2012. "Evaluation of the combined risk of sea level rise, land subsidence, and storm surges on the coastal areas of Shanghai, China," Climatic Change, Springer, vol. 115(3), pages 537-558, December.
  • Handle: RePEc:spr:climat:v:115:y:2012:i:3:p:537-558
    DOI: 10.1007/s10584-012-0468-7
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Stéphane Hallegatte & Nicola Ranger & Olivier Mestre & Patrice Dumas & Jan Corfee-Morlot & Celine Herweijer & Robert Wood, 2011. "Assessing climate change impacts, sea level rise and storm surge risk in port cities: a case study on Copenhagen," Climatic Change, Springer, vol. 104(1), pages 113-137, January.
    2. Dasgupta, Susmita & Laplante, Benoit & Meisner, Craig & Wheeler, David & Jianping Yan, 2007. "The impact of sea level rise on developing countries : a comparative analysis," Policy Research Working Paper Series 4136, The World Bank.
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    Cited by:

    1. Rui-Song Quan, 2014. "Rainstorm waterlogging risk assessment in central urban area of Shanghai based on multiple scenario simulation," Natural Hazards: Journal of the International Society for the Prevention and Mitigation of Natural Hazards, Springer;International Society for the Prevention and Mitigation of Natural Hazards, vol. 73(3), pages 1569-1585, September.
    2. Mengya Li & Jun Wang & Xiaojing Sun, 2016. "Scenario-based risk framework selection and assessment model development for natural disasters: a case study of typhoon storm surges," Natural Hazards: Journal of the International Society for the Prevention and Mitigation of Natural Hazards, Springer;International Society for the Prevention and Mitigation of Natural Hazards, vol. 80(3), pages 2037-2054, February.
    3. Yaolong Liu & Guorui Feng & Ye Xue & Huaming Zhang & Ruoguang Wang, 2015. "Small-scale natural disaster risk scenario analysis: a case study from the town of Shuitou, Pingyang County, Wenzhou, China," Natural Hazards: Journal of the International Society for the Prevention and Mitigation of Natural Hazards, Springer;International Society for the Prevention and Mitigation of Natural Hazards, vol. 75(3), pages 2167-2183, February.
    4. Jianli Liu & Jiahong Wen & Youqin Huang & Minqi Shi & Qingjie Meng & Jinhong Ding & Hui Xu, 2015. "Human settlement and regional development in the context of climate change: a spatial analysis of low elevation coastal zones in China," Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, Springer, vol. 20(4), pages 527-546, April.
    5. R. Dean Hardy & Bryan L. Nuse, 2016. "Global sea-level rise: weighing country responsibility and risk," Climatic Change, Springer, vol. 137(3), pages 333-345, August.

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