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Externalités de la santé et de l’éducation et bien-être : un modèle d’équilibre général calculable appliqué au Bénin

  • Savard, Luc

    (Département d’économique, Université Laval)

  • Adjovi, Épiphane

    (Institut National de la statistique et de l’analyse économique, Bénin)

In developing countries, Structural Adjustment Programs (SAP) have been implemented in order to correct internal and external disequilibriums. Two main characteristics of SAP are 1) the reduction of public expenditure and 2) the liberalization of the economy. Considering that an important part of government income is being generated from import tariffs (41 %) and that the government capacity to modify its fiscal system is limited, strong adjustment must be made on the expenditure side to maintain internal equilibrium. In this paper, we verify if it is possible to reverse positive results obtained when using standard CGE models to measure the impact of partial trade liberalization on GDP and household welfare by introducing externalities of education and health market. Various simulations are presented to compare alternative policies of adjustment and liberalization in Benin. Results of the model demonstrate that standard results on household welfare can be modified, even when externalities are weak. Dans les pays en voie de développement, des programmes d’ajustement structurel (PAS) ont été adoptés pour permettre aux pays en question de corriger leurs déséquilibres interne et externe. Deux des caractéristiques des PAS sont la réduction importante de la taille de la fonction publique et la libéralisation de l’économie. Lorsque des modèles d’équilibre général calculable (MEGC) conventionnels sont utilisés pour mesurer l’impact sur le bien-être des ménages d’une libéralisation du commerce extérieur, entre autres, les résultats montrent généralement une augmentation du PIB et du bien-être des ménages. Toutefois, au Bénin comme dans plusieurs pays africains, une part importante des recettes de l’État provient des droits de douane à l’importation (41 %), tandis que la capacité de l’État à modifier sa structure de taxation pour maintenir des recettes constantes est très limitée. Pour compenser la perte de recettes causée par la diminution des droits d’importation, le gouvernement doit réduire ses dépenses et, étant donné l’importance des dépenses de l’éducation et de la santé (27 % des dépenses totales de l’État), ces dernières seront également diminuées. La question est donc de savoir si en présence d’externalités des dépenses de santé et d’éducation les impacts seront modifiés. Les résultats de notre modèle montrent qu’avec l’introduction des externalités faibles, les effets positifs attendus sur le bien-être de la libéralisation sont inversés pour les trois groupes de ménages.

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Article provided by Société Canadienne de Science Economique in its journal L'Actualité économique.

Volume (Year): 74 (1998)
Issue (Month): 3 (septembre)
Pages: 523-560

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Handle: RePEc:ris:actuec:v:74:y:1998:i:3:p:523-560
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  1. Hicks, Norman L., 1979. "Growth vs basic needs: Is there a trade-off?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 7(11-12), pages 985-994.
  2. Razin, Assaf, 1977. " Economic Growth and Education: New Evidence," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 25(2), pages 317-24, January.
  3. Decaluwe, Bernard & Martens, Andre, 1988. "CGE modeling and developing economies: A concise empirical survey of 73 applications to 26 countries," Journal of Policy Modeling, Elsevier, vol. 10(4), pages 529-568.
  4. Romer, Paul M, 1986. "Increasing Returns and Long-run Growth," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 94(5), pages 1002-37, October.
  5. Michael Grossman, 1972. "The Demand for Health: A Theoretical and Empirical Investigation," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number gros72-1, December.
  6. Schultz, T.P., 1992. "The Role of Education and Human Capital in Economic Development: An Empirical Assessment," Papers 670, Yale - Economic Growth Center.
  7. Ngee-Choon Chia & Wahba, Sadek & Whalley, John, 1992. "A general equilibrium based social policy model for Cote d'Ivoire," Policy Research Working Paper Series 925, The World Bank.
  8. Oliver, F R, 1969. "Another Generalisation of the Logistic Growth Function," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 37(1), pages 144-47, January.
  9. Willis, Robert J., 1987. "Wage determinants: A survey and reinterpretation of human capital earnings functions," Handbook of Labor Economics, in: O. Ashenfelter & R. Layard (ed.), Handbook of Labor Economics, edition 1, volume 1, chapter 10, pages 525-602 Elsevier.
  10. Lucas, Robert Jr., 1988. "On the mechanics of economic development," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(1), pages 3-42, July.
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