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Profils institutionnels

  • Jacques Ould Aoudia
  • Alain Desdoigts
  • Pierre Berthelier

[eng] Institutional Profiles, a New Database of the Institutionnal Characteristics of Developing, in Transition and Developed Countries The disparity between the development paths followed by the economies of a limited number of countries, known as "emerging", and the bulk of the other developing countries has shown the limitations of previous development strategies. As a consequence, at the beginning of the 1 990s, the question of institutions has been propelled to the top of the economic agenda. The empirical literature has now solidly documented and validated the general relationship between institutions and development. With this a starting point, attention is now being concentrated on the actual nature of the institutional mechanisms at work, the inter-relationships between them and their combined impact on development. Whereas previous analysis of development had mainly drawn on the instruments derived from national accounts, there are not as yet internationally standardised observation ins- truments for tackling the questions now being raised. A few institutional indicators were created since the end of the 1990s but these cover only a limited part of the institutional domain. This document attempts to fill the gap, putting forward an original database covering a broad and detailed field of institutional characteristics for 5 1 countries (developing, in transition and developed countries). The basic data were collected using a questionnaire completed in 2001 by the economic missions of the French Ministry of the Economy, Finance and Industry in the selected countries, enabling us to cover 80 % of the world's GDP and population. In this document, we set out the method used for the construction of our indicators. We then compare them with other existing indicators, noting the existence of convergence for elements that are common to the respective inquiries. On the basis of our indicators we confirm the relationship between institutions and levels of development. We then go on to explore the database using a non-inferential (data analysis) approach. We identify an 'institutional core" consisting of four major institutional characteristics (governance, security of transactions, innovation and regulations), leading us to draw up an initial typology of institutional profiles : "authoritarian- paternalistic", "mild liberal", "pure liberal" and "informal". This typology is then supplemented by a combination of both institutional and economic variables, highlighting the main thrusts providing the framework for the database : welfare and reform. The classification obtained aggregates countries by relevant sub-groups. [fre] Pierre Berthelier, Alain Desdoigts, Jacques Ould Aoudia Profils institutionnels, une base de données sur les caractéristiques de pays en développement, en transition et développés. La disparité des trajectoires économiques entre un nombre limité de pays, les « émergents », et la plupart des autres pays du sud, a marqué la limite des stratégies de développement antérieures et projeté, au début des années 1990, la question des institutions au cœur des préoccupations économiques. La littérature empirique a maintenant solidement documenté et validé la relation globale entre institutions et développement. L'attention est désormais concentrée sur la nature même des mécanismes institutionnels à l'œuvre, leurs interrelations, leurs effets conjoints sur le développement. . . Alors que l'analyse du développement avait jusqu'alors principalement emprunté aux outils de la compatibilité nationale, il n'existe pas encore d'instruments d'observation internationalement standardisés pour aborder ces nouveaux questionnements. Quelques indicateurs institutionnels ont été créés depuis la fin des années 1990. Ils ne couvrent qu'une partie limitée du champ institutionnel. Ce document s'efforce de répondre à ce manque. Il présente une base de données originale qui couvre un champ vaste et détaillé de caractéristiques institutionnelles sur 5 1 pays. Les données élémentaires ont été recueillies à partir d'un questionnaire documenté en 2001 par les Missions économiques du ministère de l'Economie des finances et de l'industrie (France), nous permettant de couvrir 80 % du PIB et de la population de la planète. Nous délivrons la méthode adoptée pour construire nos indicateurs. Nous les confrontons aux autres indicateurs existants, et constatons une convergence. Nous confirmons le lien de causalité entre institutions et niveau de développement. Nous explorons ensuite la base de données à partir d'une approche non inférentielle (analyse de données) : nous révélons un noyau institutionnel formé de quatre caractéristiques institutionnelles majeures (gouvernance, sécurité des transactions, innovation et régulations), et débouchons sur une première typologie de profils institutionnels. La combinaison des variables institutionnelles et des variables structurelles enrichit cette typologie et fait apparaître les grands axes qui structurent la base : l'axe du bien-être et celui des réformes. La classification obtenue regroupe les pays en sous-ensembles pertinents.

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Article provided by Programme National Persée in its journal Revue française d'économie.

Volume (Year): 19 (2004)
Issue (Month): 1 ()
Pages: 121-196

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Handle: RePEc:prs:rfreco:rfeco_0769-0479_2004_num_19_1_1543
Note: DOI:10.3406/rfeco.2004.1543
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