The Relationship between Federal Government Revenues and Expenditures in Pakistan
The paper investigates the relation between expenditures and revenues of the federal government of Pakistan for the period 1978-79 to 2008-09 using the Toda and Yamamoto (1995) methodology. The results show that there is a unidirectional causality from expenditures to revenues. The results indicate evidence of the spend-revenue hypothesis for Pakistan. The Potential investors may construe this government behaviour negatively, therefore, the investment decisions may take into account the possibilities of paying higher taxes in future.
Volume (Year): 49 (2010)
Issue (Month): 4 ()
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- Paresh Kumar Narayan & Seema Narayan, 2006. "Government revenue and government expenditure nexus: evidence from developing countries," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 38(3), pages 285-291.
- von Furstenberg, George M & Green, R Jeffrey & Jeong, Jin-Ho, 1986. "Tax and Spend, or Spend and Tax?," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 68(2), pages 179-88, May.
- Engle, Robert F & Granger, Clive W J, 1987. "Co-integration and Error Correction: Representation, Estimation, and Testing," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 55(2), pages 251-76, March.
- Xiaoming Li, 2001. "Government revenue, government expenditure, and temporal causality: evidence from China," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 33(4), pages 485-497.
- Alan T. Peacock & Jack Wiseman, 1961. "The Growth of Public Expenditure in the United Kingdom," NBER Books, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, number peac61-1, May.
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