IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

The Operation of the Estonian Currency Board


  • Adam G. G. Bennett

    (International Monetary Fund)


This paper describes the operation of the Estonian currency board arrangement that has pegged the Estonian kroon to the deutsche mark since June 20, 1992, when Estonia left the ruble zone and introduced its own currency. The paper describes the institutional arrangements that were chosen for Estonia and discusses the implications for policy, markets, and program design. After reviewing the performance of the system over the first nine months of its operation, the paper considers how the arrangement will function over the medium term.

Suggested Citation

  • Adam G. G. Bennett, 1993. "The Operation of the Estonian Currency Board," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 40(2), pages 451-470, June.
  • Handle: RePEc:pal:imfstp:v:40:y:1993:i:2:p:451-470

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    File Function: main text
    Download Restriction: Access to full text is restricted to subscribers.

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Michael P. Dooley, 1988. "Capital Flight: A Response to Differences in Financial Risks," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 35(3), pages 422-436, September.
    2. Ozler, Sule*Huizinga, Harry, 1991. "How factors in creditor countries affect secondary market prices for developing country debt," Policy Research Working Paper Series 622, The World Bank.
    3. Calvo, Guillermo A, 1992. "Are High Interest Rates Effective for Stopping High Inflation? Some Skeptical Notes," World Bank Economic Review, World Bank Group, vol. 6(1), pages 55-69, January.
    4. Bulow, Jeremy & Rogoff, Kenneth, 1989. "A Constant Recontracting Model of Sovereign Debt," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 97(1), pages 155-178, February.
    5. Kletzer, K.M. & Wright, B.D., 1990. "Sovereign Debt Renegotiation In A Consumption-Smoothing Model," Papers 610, Yale - Economic Growth Center.
    6. Sule Ozler & Harry Huizinga, 1992. "Bank Exposure, Capital and Secondary Market Discounts on the Developing Country Debt," NBER Working Papers 3961, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    7. Barro, Robert J, 1979. "On the Determination of the Public Debt," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 87(5), pages 940-971, October.
    8. Jonathan Eaton & Mark Gersovitz & Joseph E. Stiglitz, 1991. "The Pure Theory of Country Risk," NBER Chapters,in: International Volatility and Economic Growth: The First Ten Years of The International Seminar on Macroeconomics, pages 391-435 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    9. Leonardo Bartolini & Avinash Dixit, 1991. "Market Valuation of Illiquid Debt and Implications for Conflicts among Creditors," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 38(4), pages 828-849, December.
    10. Easterly, William R., 1989. "Fiscal adjustment and deficit financing during the debt crisis," Policy Research Working Paper Series 138, The World Bank.
    11. Boehmer, Ekkehart & Megginson, William L, 1990. " Determinants of Secondary Market Prices for Developing Country Syndicated Loans," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 45(5), pages 1517-1540, December.
    12. Stone, Mark R., 1991. "Are sovereign debt secondary market returns sensitive to macroeconomic fundamentals? Evidence from the contemporary and interwar markets," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 10(1, Supple), pages 100-122, March.
    13. Anayiotos, George & de Pinies, Jaime, 1990. "The secondary market and the international debt problem," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 18(12), pages 1655-1669, December.
    14. Manmohan S. Kumar & Pablo Emilio Guidotti, 1991. "Domestic Public Debt of Externally Indebted Countries," IMF Occasional Papers 80, International Monetary Fund.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)


    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.

    Cited by:

    1. Carlos A. Végh Gramont & Ratna Sahay, 1995. "Dollarization in Transition Economies; Evidence and Policy Implications," IMF Working Papers 95/96, International Monetary Fund.
    2. Andreas Freytag, 2004. "EMU Enlargement: Which Concept of Convergence to Apply?," Jenaer Schriften zur Wirtschaftswissenschaft (Expired!) 11/2004, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Wirtschaftswissenschaftliche Fakultät.
    3. Andreas Freytag, 2001. "Why Have Some Monetary Reforms Succeeded and Others Not? - An Empirical Assessment," IWP Discussion Paper Series 04/2001, Institute for Economic Policy, Cologne, Germany.
    4. Owen F. Humpage & Jean M. McIntire, 1995. "An introduction to currency boards," Economic Review, Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland, issue Q II, pages 2-11.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • F31 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - Foreign Exchange


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:pal:imfstp:v:40:y:1993:i:2:p:451-470. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Sonal Shukla) or (Rebekah McClure). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    We have no references for this item. You can help adding them by using this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.