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Pricing-to-Market: Price Discrimination or Product Differentiation?

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  • Nathalie Lavoie
  • Qihong Liu

Abstract

We employ a vertical differentiation model to examine the potential bias in pricing-to-market results when using export unit values aggregating differentiated products. Our results show that: (i) false evidence of pricing-to-market is always found when using unit values, whether the law of one price holds or not; and (ii) the size of the bias increases with the level of product differentiation. Our simulation results support those conceptual findings. Thus, some of the positive pricing-to-market results in the literature could be an artifact of the product heterogeneity embodied in unit values rather than evidence of imperfect competition. Copyright 2007, Oxford University Press.

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  • Nathalie Lavoie & Qihong Liu, 2007. "Pricing-to-Market: Price Discrimination or Product Differentiation?," American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association, vol. 89(3), pages 571-581.
  • Handle: RePEc:oup:ajagec:v:89:y:2007:i:3:p:571-581
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    File URL: http://hdl.handle.net/10.1111/j.1467-8276.2006.01000.x
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    1. Pinelopi Koujianou Goldberg & Michael M. Knetter, 1997. "Goods Prices and Exchange Rates: What Have We Learned?," Journal of Economic Literature, American Economic Association, vol. 35(3), pages 1243-1272, September.
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    4. Jiawen Yang, 1997. "Exchange Rate Pass-Through In U.S. Manufacturing Industries," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 79(1), pages 95-104, February.
    5. Richard Carew & Wojciech J. Florkowski, 2003. "Pricing to Market Behavior by Canadian and U.S. Agri-food Exporters: Evidence from Wheat, Pulse and Apples," Canadian Journal of Agricultural Economics/Revue canadienne d'agroeconomie, Canadian Agricultural Economics Society/Societe canadienne d'agroeconomie, vol. 51(2), pages 139-159, July.
    6. Analysis, A Welfare & Das, Satya P. & Donnenfeld, Shabtai, 1987. "Trade policy and its impact on quality of imports," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 23(1-2), pages 77-95, August.
    7. Feenstra, Robert C. & Gagnon, Joseph E. & Knetter, Michael M., 1996. "Market share and exchange rate pass-through in world automobile trade," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(1-2), pages 187-207, February.
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    Cited by:

    1. Richard Fabling & Lynda Sanderson, 2015. "Export Performance, Invoice Currency and Heterogeneous Exchange Rate Pass-through," The World Economy, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 38(2), pages 315-339, February.
    2. Gafarova, Gulmira & Perekhozhuk, Oleksandr & Glauben, Thomas, 2015. "Price Discrimination And Pricing-To-Market Behavior Of Black Sea Region Wheat Exporters," Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics, Cambridge University Press, vol. 47(03), pages 287-316, August.
    3. Ferguson, Shon & Gars, Johan, 2016. "Productivity Shocks, International Trade and Import Prices: Evidence from Agriculture," Working Paper Series 1107, Research Institute of Industrial Economics.
    4. Guillaume Gaulier & Amina Lahrèche-Révil & Isabelle Méjean, 2006. "Structural Determinants of the Exchange-Rate Pass-Through," Working Papers 2006-03, CEPII research center.
    5. Kerstin Uhl & Oleksandr Perekhozhuk & Thomas Glauben, 2016. "Price Discrimination in Russian Wheat Exports: Evidence from Firm-level Data," Journal of Agricultural Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 67(3), pages 722-740, September.
    6. Dreyer, Heiko & Fedoseeva, Svetlana & Herrmann, Roland, 2016. "Gravity Meets Pricing To Market: What A Combinedmethod Approach Tells Us On German Beer Exports," Working Papers 234640, American Association of Wine Economists.
    7. Philip Dawson & Matthew Gorton & Carmen Hubbard & Lionel Hubbard, 2017. "Pricing-To-Market Analysis: The Case of EU Wheat Exports," Journal of Agricultural Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 68(1), pages 301-315, February.
    8. Fedoseeva, Svetlana & Werner, Laura M., 2014. "Questionning pricing-to-market linearity: partial sum decomposition approach applied to beer exports," 2014 International Congress, August 26-29, 2014, Ljubljana, Slovenia 182784, European Association of Agricultural Economists.
    9. Guillaume Gaulier & Amina Lahrèche-Révil & Isabelle Méjean, 2008. "Exchange-rate pass-through at the product level," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 41(2), pages 425-449, May.
    10. Svetlana Fedoseeva & Laura M. Werner, 2016. "How linear is pricing-to-market? Empirical assessment of hysteresis and asymmetry of PTM," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 50(3), pages 1065-1090, May.
    11. Fedoseeva Svetlana, 2013. "(A)symmetry, (Non)linearity and Hysteresis of Pricing-To-Market: Evidence from German Sugar Confectionery Exports," Journal of Agricultural & Food Industrial Organization, De Gruyter, vol. 11(1), pages 1-17, January.
    12. Fedoseeva, Svetlana, 2013. "Do German exporters PTM? Searching for right answers in sugar confectionery exports," Discussion Papers 62, Justus Liebig University Giessen, Center for international Development and Environmental Research (ZEU).
    13. Goretzki, Philipp & Perekhozhuk, Oleksandr & Glauben, Thomas & Loy, Jens-Peter, 2017. "Market power in the international fertiliser market: empirical evidence for exports from Russia," 2017 International Congress, August 28-September 1, 2017, Parma, Italy 261173, European Association of Agricultural Economists.
    14. Svetlana Fedoseeva & Laura M. Werner, 2014. "Asymmetry and Hysteresis: Two Perspectives on Pricing-to-Market Nonlinearity," Working Papers 2014.02, International Network for Economic Research - INFER.

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