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Agglomeration, Industrial Districts and Industry Clusters: Trends of the 21st Century Literature


  • Gilbert, Brett Anitra


In a previous issue of Foundations and Trends in Entrepreneurship, small firms were commonly acknowledged as an important topic in the 20th century literature on industry concentration. Since the turn of the 21st century, startups have become a topic of significant prominence. Despite this fact, none of the recent literature reviews on industry concentration highlights their importance. Likewise, several other factors that have been identified since Marshall’s (1920) work, have received new attention with fresh perspectives in the 21st century literature. These topics have not yet been sufficiently explored in the literature. The purpose of this monograph is to review the early work of scholarship on agglomerations, industrial districts and industry clusters that has been published in the 21st century. This monograph explicates the prominent themes that emerged between 2000–2015, with the specific objective of highlighting the relationships of entrepreneurs, knowledge, networks and creative and high technology industries in industry concentration.

Suggested Citation

  • Gilbert, Brett Anitra, 2017. "Agglomeration, Industrial Districts and Industry Clusters: Trends of the 21st Century Literature," Foundations and Trends(R) in Entrepreneurship, now publishers, vol. 13(1), pages 1-80, May.
  • Handle: RePEc:now:fntent:0300000069

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    More about this item


    Agglomeration; Industrial districts; Industrial clusters; Geographic regions; Industry concentration; Clusters; Network structures;

    JEL classification:

    • L26 - Industrial Organization - - Firm Objectives, Organization, and Behavior - - - Entrepreneurship
    • R58 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Regional Government Analysis - - - Regional Development Planning and Policy


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