On the Causal Relationship between Government Expenditure and Tax Revenue in Pakistan
This paper applies the technique of Granger Causality to determine the relationship between total government expenditures and total tax revenue using annual revised estimates. The analysis discovers a firm unidirectional effect from expenditure to revenue suggesting the preference of controlling the spending decisions to reduce the tax revenue-expenditure deficit.
Volume (Year): 9 (2004)
Issue (Month): 2 (Jul-Dec)
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- Oluwole Owoye, 1995. "The causal relationship between taxes and expenditures in the G7 countries: cointegration and error-correction models," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 2(1), pages 19-22.
- Paul R. Blackley, 1986. "Causality Between Revenues and Expenditures and the Size of the Federal Budget," Public Finance Review, , vol. 14(2), pages 139-156, April.
- Joulfaian, David & Mookerjee, Rajen, 1990. "The Intertemporal Relationship between State and Local Government Revenues and Expenditures: Evidence from OECD Countries," Public Finance = Finances publiques, , vol. 45(1), pages 109-17.
- Michael Marlow & Neela Manage, 1987. "Expenditures and receipts: Testing for causality in state and local government finances," Public Choice, Springer, vol. 53(3), pages 243-255, January.
- Barro, Robert J, 1974.
"Are Government Bonds Net Wealth?,"
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University of Chicago Press, vol. 82(6), pages 1095-1117, Nov.-Dec..
- Granger, C W J, 1969. "Investigating Causal Relations by Econometric Models and Cross-Spectral Methods," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 37(3), pages 424-38, July.
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